Implications of international technology transfer benchmarks for developing countries | Intellect Skip to content
Volume 4, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1474-2748
  • E-ISSN: 2040-0551


International technology transfer benchmark data can be used to understand the implications of promoting technology transfer in higher education institutions in developing countries. While the data indicates that the average return, after 810 years of activity, is around 1 to 2 per cent of the annual research expenditure, the returns are, however, characterised by high uncertainty and variability. An understanding of the nature of the returns and the dynamics of the technology transfer process is necessary for institutional and public sector managers to manage this emerging discipline effectively. Unrealistic expectations of the returns can lead to dysfunctional policy decisions. The data presented in this article, together with a dynamic model, provides background to, and an aid to understanding, the issues, so as to promote better decision-making.


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  • Article Type: Article
Keyword(s): benchmarks; developing country capacity; models; technology transfer
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