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Volume 1, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2040-199X
  • E-ISSN: 1751-7974


In Cte d'Ivoire, popular music genres such as reggae and have served as a domain for the articulation of ideas about politicians, corruption, citizenship, national history and identity. This paper specifically analyses the divergent dynamics of reggae and . Reggae, in Cte d'Ivoire as in its country of origin Jamaica, has characteristically been associated with commentary on socio-political issues. emerged in the 1990s in the context of the student demonstrations for political liberalization and, along with reggae, served as a platform for criticism of prevailing social and political conditions. Ivorian popular music has consequently been associated with the return to multi-party politics. It has also been very outspoken against divisive political rhetoric such as . However, after the outbreak of open conflict in 2002, new themes have emerged in . In compilations that have been termed patriotic albums, many well-known artists have aligned themselves with the government and the Alliance of Young Patriots, depicting a partial, southern portrayal of the conflict. Thus ideological positions in Ivorian music have varied over time and across genres, and a category such as protest music is ill suited to fully capture its dimensions.


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