Fake WMDs all over again? How Dutch newspapers supported western propaganda on an alleged chemical attack in Syria | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 16, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 2515-8538
  • E-ISSN: 2515-8546

Abstract

History shows that wherever there is war, there is propaganda. In part for that reason it is often difficult to discover the truth about events that take place during war. For instance, many initially believed the western assertions that a chemical attack took place in the Syrian city of Douma in April 2018 and that the Syrian government was responsible. Yet it has become increasingly clear that it is more likely than not that the alleged attack did not occur and was instrumentalized for western political purposes. By way of a content analysis and a Critical Discourse Analysis this article investigates how the two most reputable Dutch newspapers reported and commented on the alleged attack in 2018. In particular, it explores the extent of the newspapers’ reliance on western sources and to whom the newspapers assigned responsibility for the alleged attack. The results show that the newspapers heavily depended on western sources and promoted western propaganda by uncritically providing it much prominence. Despite a lack of evidence and before any investigation had taken place, the newspapers often held the Syrian government responsible for the alleged attack.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jciaw_00091_1
2022-12-30
2024-04-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anon. ( 2018a;), ‘ Assad’s useful idiots. ’, The Times, 14 April, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/assad-s-useful-idiots-hddlzn0vz. Accessed 5 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anon. ( 2018b;), ‘ Hulporganisaties: “Tussen 50 en 150 burgerdoden bij gifgasaanval in Syrië”. ’, de Volkskrant, 8 April, www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/hulporganisaties-tussen-50-en-150-burgerdoden-bij-gifgasaanval-in-syrie~b0507eb4/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anon. ( 2018c;), ‘ Opinie op zondag: Een blik in de glazen bol. ’, de Volkskrant, 22 April, https://www.volkskrant.nl/columns-opinie/opinie-op-zondag-een-blik-in-de-glazen-bol~bff563a31/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beaumont, P., and Roth, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ Russia claims Syria air defences shot down 71 of 103 missiles. ’, The Guardian, 14 April, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/14/russia-claims-syria-air-defences-shot-down-majority-missiles. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bellingcat ( 2018;), ‘ Open source survey of alleged chemical attacks in Douma on 7th April 2018. ’, 11 April, https://www.bellingcat.com/news/mena/2018/04/11/open-source-survey-alleged-chemical-attacks-douma-7th-april-2018/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  6. Bennett, L. W.. ( 1990;), ‘ Toward a theory of press-state relations in the United States. ’, Journal of Communication, 40:2, pp. 10325.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bergman, T.. ( 2011;), ‘ Polite conquest? The New York Times and The Nation on the American occupation of Haiti. ’, Journal of Haitian Studies, 17:2, pp. 3349.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergman, T.. ( 2013a;), ‘ Liberal or radical? Rethinking Dutch media history. ’, Javnost – The Public, 20:3, pp. 93108.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergman, T.. ( 2013b;), ‘ Relevant but long since absent: Re-establishing a political economy of the Dutch media. ’, International Journal of Communication, 7, pp. 72240.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bergman, T.. ( 2014), The Dutch Media Monopoly, Amsterdam:: VU University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bergman, T., and van de Beek, E.. (eds) ( 2018), Nepnieuwsexplosie: Desinformatie in de Nederlandse media, Groningen:: De Blauwe Tijger;.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Berlin Group 21 ( n.d.;), ‘ Statement of concern: The OPCW investigation of alleged chemical weapons use in Douma, Syria. ’, https://berlingroup21.org. Accessed 12 November 2021.
  13. Blok, S.. ( 2019;), ‘ Antwoord op vragen van het lid Karabulut over een gelekt document van de OPCW over een chemische aanval in Syrië. ’, Tweedekamer , 2 July, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/kamervragen/detail?id=2019Z11585&did=2019D27913. Accessed 5 October 2021.
  14. Blok, S.. ( 2020;), ‘ Antwoord op vragen van de leden Van Helvert en Omtzigt over de OPCW Douma-documenten op Wikileaks. ’, Tweedekamer , 20 January, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/kamervragen/detail?id=2020Z00016&did=2020D01616. Accessed 5 October 2021.
  15. Blok, S., and Kaag, S.. ( 2018;), ‘ Kamerbrief over het IOB-onderzoek naar stabilisatieprogramma’s in Syrië. ’, Tweedekamer , 7 September, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2018D43130. Accessed 5 October 2021.
  16. Blumenthal, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ The Syrian Medical Association is selling regime change and driving the US to war. ’, MPN News, 12 April, https://www.mintpressnews.com/al-qaedas-mash-unit-how-the-syrian-american-medical-society-is-selling-regime-change-and-driving-the-us-to-war/240393/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Boer, M. de. ( 2015;), ‘ Kabinet overweegt IS ook in Syrië te gaan bombarderen. ’, Trouw , 3 December, https://www.trouw.nl/nieuws/kabinet-overweegt-is-ook-in-syrie-te-gaan-bombarderen~b5264d6e/. Accessed 15 September 2020.
  18. Botelho, G., and Brittain, B.. ( 2014;), ‘ Obama to seek more aid for moderate rebels in Syria. ’, CNN , 26 June, https://edition.cnn.com/2014/06/26/politics/syria-us-opposition-funding/index.html. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  19. Boumans, J.,, Trilling, D.,, Vliegenthart, R., and Boomgaarden, H.. ( 2018;), ‘ The agency makes the (online) news world go round: The impact of news agency content on print and online news. ’, International Journal of Communication, 12, pp. 176889.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brennan, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ Why did U.S freeze white helmets funding?. ’, Newsweek, 12 October, https://www.newsweek.com/why-did-us-freeze-white-helmets-funding-syrian-search-and-rescue-group-faces-910483. Accessed 6 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bustani, J.. ( 2019;), ‘ OPCW-analytical-points-final. ’, WikiLeaks , https://wikileaks.org/opcw-douma/document/OPCW-Analytical-Points-final/page-1/#pagination. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  22. Campos, R.. ( 2017;), ‘ Russia vetoes extension of mission probing chemical weapons use in Syria. ’, Reuters , 24 October, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-un/russia-vetoes-extension-of-mission-probing-chemical-weapons-use-in-syria-idUSKBN1CT25P. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  23. Cobain, I.,, Ross, A.,, Evans, R., and Mahmood, M.. ( 2016;), ‘ How Britain funds the “propaganda war” against ISIS in Syria. ’, The Guardian, 3 May, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/03/how-britain-funds-the-propaganda-war-against-isis-in-syria. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Commissariaat voor de Media ( 2019;), ‘ Mediamonitor 2019: Mediabedrijven en mediamarkten. ’, https://www.mediamonitor.nl/wp-content/uploads/Mediamonitor-2019.pdf. Accessed 25 October 2019.
  25. Courage Foundation Panel ( 2019;), ‘ Panel criticizes “unacceptable practices” in the OPCW’s investigation of the alleged chemical attack in Douma, Syria on April 7th 2018. ’, WikiLeaks , https://wikileaks.org/opcw-douma/document/OPCW-Statement-final/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  26. Cukier, E.. ( 2018;), ‘ Russen “bewijzen” in Den Haag dat er geen gifgas was. ’, NRC , 26 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/26/russen-bewijzen-in-den-haag-dat-er-geen-gifgas-was-a1601085. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  27. Dahhan, G., and Holdert, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Hoe de Nederlandse overheid een Syrische “terreurbeweging” faciliteerde. ’, Trouw , 10 September, https://www.trouw.nl/nieuws/hoe-de-nederlandse-overheid-een-syrische-terreurbeweging-faciliteerde~bd73dd6e/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  28. Davies, N.. ( 2009), Flat Earth News, London:: Random House;.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Derix, S., and Dohmen, J.. ( 2018;), ‘ Russische ambassade in Den Haag is een zenuwcentrum voor spionage. ’, NRC , 30 November, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/11/30/poetins-spionnen-in-nederland-a2879962. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  30. Deutsch, A.. ( 2019;), ‘ New chemical weapons team to launch first Syria investigations. ’, Reuters , 10 July, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-syria-chemicalweapons-exclusi-idUSKCN1U51XO. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  31. Dorman, S.. ( 2019;), ‘ Newsweek reporter quits, claiming outlet “suppressed” story on global chemical weapons watchdog. ’, Fox News, 7 December, https://www.foxnews.com/media/newsweek-reporter-tareq-haddad-quits. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Elshout, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ Hebben Europese sancties tegen Poetin nog zin?. ’, de Volkskrant, 15 April, https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/hebben-europese-sancties-tegen-poetin-nog-zin~bf9bda72/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fairclough, N.. ( 2013), Language and Power, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fisk, R.. ( 2018;), ‘ The search for truth in the rubble of Douma: And one doctor’s doubts over the chemical attack. ’, Independent, 17 April, https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/syria-chemical-attack-gas-douma-robert-fisk-ghouta-damascus-a8307726.html. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fisk, R.. ( 2019;), ‘ This is not a movie. ’, YouTube , 13 January, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FdwJwT30adM. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  36. Friel, H., and Falk, R.. ( 2007), The Record of the Paper: How the New York Times Misreports US Foreign Policy, New York:: Verso;.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Grunberg, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ De hypocrisie dat Asssad mag doden met conventionale maar niet met chemische wapens is ongemakkelijk. ’, de Volkskrant, 19 April, https://www.volkskrant.nl/columns-opinie/de-hypocrisie-dat-assad-mag-doden-met-conventionele-maar-niet-met-chemische-wapens-is-ongemakkelijk~b2cf671e/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Haddad, T.. ( 2019;), ‘ Lies, Newsweek and control of the media narrative: First-hand account. ’, Newsweek, 16 December, https://mronline.org/2019/12/16/lies-newsweek-and-control-of-the-media-narrative-first-hand-account/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hallin, D. C.. ( 1989), The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam, Berkeley, CA:: The University of California Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hayward, T.. ( 2019;), ‘ Media coverage of OPCW whistleblower revelations. ’, Tim Hayward , 24 October, https://timhayward.wordpress.com/2019/10/24/media-coverage-of-opcw-whistleblower-revelations/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  41. Heck, W.. ( 2019;), ‘ Wie zat er achter de gifgasaanval in het Syrische Douma?. ’, NRC , 18 July, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2019/07/18/wie-zat-er-achter-de-gifgasaanval-a3967586. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  42. Henderson, I.. ( 2019;), ‘ Engineering assessment of two cylinders observed at the Douma incident. ’, Working Group on Syria, Propaganda and Media , https://syriapropagandamedia.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Engineering-assessment-of-two-cylinders-observed-at-the-Douma-incident-27-February-2019-1.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  43. Henderson, I.. ( 2020;), ‘ Ian Henderson @ UN Jan. 20, 2020. ’, YouTube , 20 January, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZknLgDXuaBg. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  44. Herman, E. S., and Chomsky, N.. ( 1988), Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, New York:: Pantheon;.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hersh, S.. ( 2017;), ‘ Trump’s red line. ’, Welt , 25 June, https://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article165905578/Trump-s-Red-Line.html?cid=onsite.onsitesearch. Accessed 17 July 2020.
  46. Hitchens, P.. (@ClarkeMicah) ( 2020;), ‘ If we had had the media of 2020 in 2003, would ever have found out that there were no WMD in Iraq? Here, I deplore the growing feebleness of the media (and the growing power of the state to suppress inconvenient information) on such issues. ’, Twitter , 27 January, https://twitter.com/ClarkeMicah/status/1221735707175157760. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  47. Ignatius, D.. ( 1991;), ‘ Innocence abroad: The new world of spyless coups. ’, Washington Post, 22 September, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1991/09/22/innocence-abroad-the-new-world-of-spyless-coups/92bb989a-de6e-4bb8-99b9-462c76b59a16/. Accessed 5 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. IOB ( 2018;), ‘ Review of the monitoring systems of three projects in Syria: AJACS, White Helmets and NLA. ’, Parlementaire Monitor , 12 September, https://www.parlementairemonitor.nl/9353000/1/j9vvij5epmj1ey0/vkrpoktgo1zz. Accessed 5 October 2021.
  49. Jong, S. de. ( 2018;), ‘ Wel gif, geen gif, ander gif: over de Skripal-zaak en nepnieuws. ’, NRC , 21 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/21/wel-gif-geen-gif-ander-gif-over-de-skripal-zaak-en-nepnieuws-a1600269. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  50. Karabulut, S.. ( 2019;), ‘ Antwoord op vragen van het lid Karabulut over een gelekt document van de OPCW over een chemische aanval in Syrië. ’, Tweede Kamer , 7 June, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/kamervragen/detail?id=2019D27913&did=2019D27913. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  51. Keate, G., and Blanchard, S.. ( 2018;), ‘ To say Douma attack was staged is to enter an Orwellian world. ’, The Times, 14 April, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/professors-shut-down-debate-over-assad-s-chemical-attacks-n899fjdkm. Accessed 5 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Keate, G.,, Kennedy D.,, Shveda, K., and Haynes H.. ( 2018;), ‘ Apologists for Assad working in British Universities. ’, The Times, 14 April, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/apologists-for-assad-working-in-british-universities-2f72hw29m. Accessed 5 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kist, R., and van Lonkhuyzen, L.. ( 2018;), ‘ Wat leeft er in de wereld van Nederlandse complottheorieën?. ’, NRC , 14 September, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/09/14/wat-leeft-er-in-de-wereld-van-nederlandse-complottheorieen-a1616555. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  54. Koenders, B.,, Ploumen, L., and Hennis-Plasschaert, J.. ( 2016a;), ‘ Aanvullende artikel 100-brief Nederlandse bijdrage aan de strijd tegen ISIS. ’, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/brieven_regering/detail?id=2016Z01913&did=2016D03996. Accessed 16 November 2022.
  55. Koenders, B.,, Ploumen, L., and Hennis-Plasschaert, J.. ( 2016b;), ‘ Voortgangsrapportage Nederlandse bijdrage aan de strijd tegen ISIS. ’, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/brieven_regering/detail?id=2016D18378&did=2016D18378. Accessed 16 November 2022.
  56. Lanting, B.. ( 2018;), ‘ Er was geen gifgas, moet 11-jarige Hassan bewijzen. ’, de Volkskrant, 26 April, https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/er-was-geen-gifgas-moet-11-jarige-hassan-bewijzen~b956c499/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Mazzetti, M.,, Goldman, A., and Schmidt, M. S.. ( 2017;), ‘ Behind the sudden death of a $1 billion secret C.I.A. war in Syria. ’, New York Times, 2 August, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/02/world/middleeast/cia-syria-rebel-arm-train-trump.html. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Mebius, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ Hoe wist de MIVD een Russische hackpoging te verijdelen? Een reconstructie van aankomst to aanhouding. ’, de Volkskrant, 4 October, https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/hoe-wist-de-mivd-een-russische-hackpoging-te-verijdelen-een-reconstructie-van-aankomst-tot-aanhouding~b8af00c8/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. NOS ( 2016;), ‘ Koenders: Assad in Den Haag berechten. ’, 16 January, https://nos.nl/artikel/2080783-koenders-assad-in-den-haag-berechten.html. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  60. NRC ( 2018a;), ‘ Het Westen kan de wereld niet overlaten aan Poetin en Assad. ’, 16 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/16/aanval-op-syrie-het-westen-kan-de-wereld-niet-overlaten-aan-poetin-en-assad-a1599530. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  61. NRC ( 2018b;), ‘ Verontwaardiging over gifgasaanval Syrië moet vervolg krijgen. ’, 11 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/11/gifgas-verontwaardiging-over-gifgasaanval-syrie-moet-vervolg-krijgen-a1598903. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  62. Obama, B.. ( 2012;), ‘ Remarks by the President to the White House press corps. ’, The White House , 20 August, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2012/08/20/remarks-president-white-house-press-corps. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  63. OPCW ( 2014;), ‘ All category 1 chemicals declared by Syria now destroyed. ’, https://www.opcw.org/media-centre/news/2014/08/opcw-all-category-1-chemicals-declared-syria-now-destroyed. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  64. OPCW ( 2019a;), ‘ Opening statement by the director-general to the ninety-first session of the executive council. ’, 9 July, https://www.opcw.org/sites/default/files/documents/2019/07/ec91dg24%28e%29.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  65. OPCW ( 2019b;), ‘ Report of the fact-finding mission regarding the incident of alleged use of toxic chemicals as a weapon in Douma, Syrian Arab Republic, on 7 April 2018. ’, 1 March, https://www.opcw.org/sites/default/files/documents/2019/03/s-1731-2019%28e%29.pdf. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  66. O’Rourke, L. A.. ( 2018), Covert Regime Change: America’s Secret Cold War, Ithaca, NY:: Cornell University Press;, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt21h4v86. Accessed 5 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Paauwe, C.. ( 2020;), ‘ OPCW: Oud-medewerkers lekten foute versie van gifgasaanval Douma. ’, NRC , 6 February, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2020/02/06/opcw-medewerkers-lekten-een-foute-versie-van-gifgasaanval-douma-a3989635. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  68. Peek, S.. ( 2018;), ‘ Meer dan 100 gewonden in mogelijke gasaanval op Aleppo. ’, NRC , 25 November, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/11/25/meer-dan-100-gewonden-in-mogelijke-gasaanval-op-aleppo-a2756437. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  69. Reuters ( 2017;), ‘ Trump statement on U.S. military strikes in Syria. ’, 7 April, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-text-idUSKBN1790A1. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  70. Reuters ( 2018;), ‘ U.S. President Trump announces strikes on Syria. ’, 14 April, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-trump-text/full-text-u-s-president-trump-announces-strikes-on-syria-idUSKBN1HL040. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  71. Robinson, P.. ( 2019;), ‘ Expanding the field of political communication: Making the case for a fresh perspective through “propaganda studies”. ’, Frontiers in Communication, 4:26, pp. 113.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Ruptly ( 2018;), ‘ OPCW Russian delegation holds press briefing in The Hague. ’, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nKil4rhDFW8. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  73. Ruptly ( 2019;), ‘ Russian embassy in the Netherlands holds briefing on chemical weapons in Syria. ’, YouTube , https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3801&v=BGNLErw2MsQ. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  74. State Department ( 2011;), ‘ Designated foreign terrorist organizations. ’, https://www.state.gov/foreign-terrorist-organizations/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  75. Steele, J.. ( 2019;), ‘ The OPCW and Douma: Chemical weapons watchdog accused of evidence-tampering by its own inspectors. ’, CounterPunch, 15 November, https://www.counterpunch.org/2019/11/15/the-opcw-and-douma-chemical-weapons-watchdog-accused-of-evidence-tampering-by-its-own-inspectors/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Ten Broeke, H.. ( 2018;), ‘ De VN-Veiligheidsraad wordt steeds onmachtiger. ’, de Volkskrant, 9 July, https://www.volkskrant.nl/columns-opinie/de-vn-veiligheidsraad-wordt-steeds-onmachtiger~b6b1b681/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. van Damme, W.. ( 2018;), ‘ Oorlog in Syrië: Westerse media als woordvoerders van Al Qaeda. ’, in T. Bergman, and E. van de Beek. (eds), Nepnieuwsexplosie, Groningen:: De Blauwe Tijger;, pp. 11946.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. van de Beek, E.. ( 2017a;), ‘ Steunt Nederland terroristen in Syrië?. ’, Novini , 25 May, https://web.archive.org/web/20190610054850/http://www.novini.nl/steunt-nederland-terroristen-syrie/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  79. van de Beek, E.. ( 2017b;), ‘ We doen alsof Poetin Hitler is, en knijpen een oogje dicht bij Saoedi-Arabië. ’, Novini , 14 April, https://web.archive.org/web/20190510170004/http://www.novini.nl/we-alsof-poetin-hitler-is-en-knijpen-oogje-dicht-saoedi-arabie/. Accessed 15 September 2020.
  80. van de Beek, E.. ( 2019a;), ‘ Rising tensions within OPCW. ’, Diplomat Magazine, 15 November, https://diplomatmagazine.eu/2019/11/15/rising-tensions-within-opcw/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. van de Beek, E.. ( 2019b;), ‘ Twijfels OPCW over gifgasaanval Syrië. ’, Novini , 16 May, https://web.archive.org/web/20190529171250/http://www.novini.nl/twijfels-opcw-over-gifgasaanval-syrie/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  82. van Es, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ Syrische democratie-activist: “Door de verkiezingen heeft oost-Ghouta even aan vrijheid geroken”. ’, de Volkskrant, 22 June, https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/syrische-democratie-activist-door-de-verkiezingen-heeft-oost-ghouta-even-aan-vrijheid-geroken~b2b79df7/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. van Es, A.. (@esvanana) ( 2019;), ‘ En ja, kritiek op het OPCW-rapport is waanzinnig interessant. Alleen lijkt het erop dat de kritiek van de klokkenluiders wel degelijk in rapport is verwerkt. Zie Bellingcat met een recente bespreking. ’, Twitter , 15 December, https://twitter.com/esvanana/status/1206184175704903680. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  84. van Helvert, M., and Omtzigt, P.. ( 2020;), ‘ Antwoord op vragen van de leden Van Helvert en Omtzigt over de OPCW Douma-documenten op Wikileaks. ’, Tweede Kamer , 20 January, https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/kamervragen/detail?id=2020D01616&did=2020D01616. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  85. van Lonkhuyzen, L., and Dohmen, J.. ( 2018;), ‘ De kofferbak van de Russische spionnen zit vol met hackgereedschap. ’, NRC , 4 October, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/10/04/de-kofferbak-zit-vol-met-hackgereedschap-a2207759. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  86. van Straaten, F.. ( 2018a;), ‘ Bommen op Syrië zullen opmars van Assads leger niet stuiten. ’, NRC , 14 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/14/bommen-op-syrie-zullen-opmars-van-assads-leger-niet-stuiten-a1599471. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  87. van Straaten, F.. ( 2018b;), ‘ Rusland en VS ruziën na “gifgasaanval”. ’, NRC , 8 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/08/rusland-en-vs-ruzien-na-gifaanval-a1598670. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  88. Vennink, T.. ( 2018;), ‘ Rusland: Vergeldingsaanval verergert catastrofe in Syrië. ’, de Volkskrant, 15 April, https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/rusland-vergeldingsaanval-verergert-catastrofe-in-syrie~b675a00d/. Accessed 16 July 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Webster, B.. ( 2018;), ‘ Academics accused of speaking for Assad condemn Syria raids. ’, The Times, 16 April, https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/academics-speaking-for-assad-question-justification-for-raids-sm6qthxkx. Accessed 5 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. WGSPM ( 2019;), ‘ How the OPCW’s investigation of the Douma incident was nobbled. ’, 26 June, http://syriapropagandamedia.org/how-the-opcws-investigation-of-the-douma-incident-was-nobbled. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  91. Williams, K.. ( 2013), International Journalism, London:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Zeeuw, H. de. ( 2018;), ‘ Tientallen doden bij chemische aanval Douma. ’, NRC , 8 April, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/04/08/tientallen-doden-bij-chemische-aanval-douma-a1598581. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  93. Zeeuw, H. de, and Kranenburg, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Nederland stopt steun aan Syrische oppositie. ’, NRC , 9 September, https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2018/09/09/nederland-stopt-steunen-syrische-oppositie-a1615829. Accessed 16 July 2020.
  94. Zollmann, F.. ( 2017), Media, Propaganda and the Politics of Intervention, New York:: Peter Lang;.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Bergman, Tabe, and van de Beek, Eric. ( 2022;), ‘ Fake WMDs all over again? How Dutch newspapers supported western propaganda on an alleged chemical attack in Syria. ’, Journal of Contemporary Iraq & the Arab World, 16:3, pp. 197215, https://doi.org/10.1386/jciaw_00091_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/jciaw_00091_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/jciaw_00091_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Article
Keyword(s): de Volkskrant; Douma; journalism; Netherlands; newspapers; NRC Handelsblad; war
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error