Finland: Media welfare state in the digital era? | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 11, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 2516-3523
  • E-ISSN: 2516-3531

Abstract

The concept of media welfare state is a combination of the democratic corporatist media system and social democratic welfare state model, describing the distinctiveness of the Nordic countries and their media systems with four basic principles. Media welfare state is based on communication services understood as public goods, freedom from editorial interference, cultural policy and economic support for media pluralism as well as preference for consensual solutions involving cooperation between main stakeholders. However, identifying a joint media welfare state model in recent media and communication policy decisions made in Nordic countries on developing communication infrastructures, media delivery and universal access turns out to be difficult. During the last three decades, none of the four largest Nordic countries has strictly followed all the four principles. In most cases, Finland has ended up with different solutions than its Nordic neighbours and sometimes also in contradiction with the Media Welfare State model. There is evidence that the Nordic media markets have been losing their distinguishability over the years. But the main reason why the present-day Nordic countries do not fit into media welfare state model is that they no longer are welfare states – not at least in the same fashion as they used to be. In Finland, this transition from the welfare state to the competition state has been more rapid and extensive than elsewhere in the Nordic region, partly because of its geopolitical position. The Finnish economy has also been exceptionally dependent on a single mobile technology corporation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jdmp_00020_1
2020-06-01
2024-02-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ala-Fossi, M.. ( 2012;), ‘ Social obsolescence of the TV fee and the financial crisis of Finnish public service media. ’, Journal of Media Business Studies, 9:1, pp. 3354.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ala-Fossi, M.. ( 2016;), ‘ Why did TV bits and radio bits not fit together? Digitalization and divergence of broadcast media. ’, in A. Lugmayr, and C. Dal Zotto. (eds), Media Convergence Handbook: Vol. 1. Journalism, Broadcasting, and Social Media Aspects of Convergence, Berlin:: Springer;, pp. 26585.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ala-Fossi, M.,, Alén-Savikko, A.,, Grönlund, M.,, Haara, P.,, Hellman, H.,, Herkman, J.,, Hildén, J.,, Hiltunen, I.,, Jääsaari, J.,, Karppinen, K.,, Koskenniemi, A.,, Kuutti, H.,, Lehtisaari, K.,, Manninen, V.,, Matikainen, J., and Mykkänen, M.. ( 2018), Media ja viestintäpolitiikan nykytila ja mittaaminen (The State of Media and Communications Policy and How to Measure It), Liikenne-ja viestintäministeriön julkaisuja 4/2018 , Helsinki:: Liikenne- ja viestintäministeriö;.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ala-Fossi, M., and Bonet, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Who’s afraid of a Pan-European spectrum policy? The EU and the battles over the UHF broadcast band. ’, International Journal of Communication, 12:1, pp. 33758.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alasuutari, P.. ( 2004;), ‘ Suunnittelutaloudesta kilpailutalouteen: Miten muutos oli ideologisesti mahdollinen?’ (‘From planned economy to competition economy: How was the change ideologically possible?’). , Yhteiskuntapolitiikka, 69:1, pp. 316.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ali-Yrkkö, J.,, Paija, L.,, Reilly, C., and Ylä-Anttila, P.. ( 2000), NOKIA: A Big Company in a Small Country, ETLA B162 Series, Helsinki:: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy;.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ali-Yrkkö, J.,, Seppälä, T., and Mattila, J.. ( 2016), Suurten yritysten ja niiden arvoketjujen rooli taloudessa (The Role of the Largest Companies and Their Value Chains in the Economy), ETLA Raportit No 53 , Helsinki:: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy;.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. BBC ( 2019;), ‘ India beats UK and US on mobile data price. ’, BBC News , 5 March, https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-47416250. Accessed 8 March 2020.
  9. Council of State ( 1995), Turvallisuus muuttuvassa maailmassa (Security in a Changing World), A security policy report to the Parliament of Finland , Helsinki:: Council of State;.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cowell, A.. ( 2002;), ‘ Not in Finland anymore? More like Nokialand. ’, New York Times, 6 February, https://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/06/world/not-in-finland-anymore-more-like-nokialand.html. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Engelstad, F.,, Larsen, H.,, Rogstad, J., and Steen-Johnsen, K.. (eds) ( 2017), Institutional Change in the Public Sphere: Views on the Nordic Model, Warsaw and Berlin:: De Gruyter Open;.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Esping-Andersen, G.. ( 1990), The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Princeton:: Princeton University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Galperin, H.. ( 2004), New TV, Old Politics: The Transition to Digital Tv in the U.S. and Britain, New York:: Cambridge University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gorodnichenko, Y.,, Mendoza, E. G., and Tesar, L. L.. ( 2009), The Finnish Great Depression: From Russia With Love, Working Paper 14874 , Cambridge, MA:: National Bureau of Economic Research;, https://www.nber.org/papers/w14874. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Haapala, P.. ( 2009;), ‘ Modernisation of Finland 1800–2000. ’, in M. Perkiö. (ed.), Perspectives to Global Social Development, Tampere:: Tampere University Press;, pp. 4866.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Häikiö, M.. ( 2001), Globalisaatio. Telekommunikaation maailmanvalloitus 1992–2000. Nokia Oyj:n historia 3 (Globalization: The World Conquest of Telecommunications 1992–2000 – the History of Nokia Ltd, Vol. 3), Helsinki:: Edita;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hallin, D., and Mancini, P.. ( 2004), Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics, Cambridge and New York:: Cambridge University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hämäläinen, R.. ( 2015), Työväenlehden arktinen taival (Arctic Journey of a Labour Paper), Vantaa:: Kellastupa;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Häyrynen, S.. ( 2006), Suomalaisen yhteiskunnan kulttuuripolitiikka (The Cultural Policy of Finnish Society), Jyväskylä:: Minerva Kustannus;.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hellman, H.. ( 2010;), ‘ Liberal turn in media policy: The case of Finland’s digital television. ’, International Journal of Digital Television, 1:2, pp. 193213.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hilson, M.. ( 2008), The Nordic Model: Scandinavia Since 1945, London:: Reaktion Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Irwin, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ Denmark postpones FM sunsetting. ’, RadioWorld, 9 June, https://www.radioworld.com/trends-1/denmark-postpones-fm-sunsetting. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jääsaari, J.. ( 2007), Consistency and Change in Finnish Broadcasting Policy: The Implementation of Digital Television and Lessons from the Canadian Experience, Turku:: Åbo Akademi University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jessop, B.. ( [2002] 2005), The Future of the Capitalist State, Cambridge and Malden, MA:: Polity Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jones, R.. ( 2018;), ‘ UK slips to 35th in global table of broadband speeds. ’, The Guardian, 10 July, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/jul/10/uk-slips-to-35th-in-global-table-of-broadband-speeds. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kananen, J.. (ed.) ( 2017), Kilpailuvaltion kyydissä. Suomen hyvinvointimallin tulevaisuus (Riding With the Competition State: The Future of the Finnish Welfare Model), Helsinki:: Gaudeamus;.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kettunen, P.. ( 2001;), ‘ The Nordic welfare state in Finland. ’, Scandinavian Journal of History, 26:3, pp. 22547.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kettunen, P.,, Lundberg, U.,, Österberg, M., and Petersen, K.. ( 2016;), ‘ The Nordic model and the rise and fall of Nordic cooperation. ’, in J. Strang. (ed.), Nordic Cooperation: A European Region in Transition, London and New York:: Routledge;, pp. 6992.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kuusi, T.. ( 2015), The Finnish Great Depression of the 1990s: Soviet Trade or Home-Made?, ETLA Working Papers No 32, Helsinki:: The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lähteenmäki, P.. ( 2017;), ‘ Onnea Suomi! Mutta kuinka olisi käynyt osana Ruotsia?’ (‘Congrats Finland! But how would it have been as a part of Sweden?’). , Talouselämä, 6 December, https://www.talouselama.fi/uutiset/onnea-suomi-mutta-kuinka-olisi-kaynyt-osana-ruotsia-varmaankin-olisi-monipuolisempi-elinkeinorakenne/d7885125-1c1b-3f6c-ad2e-f2f1a30193aa. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lehmusto, H.. ( 2017;), ‘ Television tiikerinloikka digitaalisuuteen’ (‘Television’s tiger-leap into the future’). , in M. Lehti, and M. Rossi. (eds), Digitaalinen Suomi 2017 (Digital Finland 2017), Helsinki:: Aalto University;, https://suomidigi.fi/wp-content/themes/suomidigi/assets/attachments/digitaalinen-suomi-1995-2015/osa1/21%20Television%20tiikerinloikka%20digitaalisuuteen.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Libell, H. P.. ( 2017;), ‘ Norway becomes first country to start switching off FM radio. ’, New York Times, 11 January, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/11/world/europe/norway-fm-radio.html. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lindén, C.-G.. ( 2016), Nokian valtakunta. Raportti hulluilta vuosilta (Kingdom of Nokia: Report From the Crazy Years), Helsinki:: Gaudeamus;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Manninen, A. T.. ( 2002), Elaboration of NMT and GSM Standards. From Idea to Market, Studia Historica Jyväskyläensia 60 , Jyväskylä:: University of Jyväskylä;.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Miettunen, H.. ( 2013;), ‘ Kaupallinen potentiaali ei riitä Suomessa kuin puoleen kapasiteetista: Tyhjän panttina 80 TV-kanavaa’ (‘Finland has commercial potential for only half of the capacity: 80 TV channels sitting empty’). , Turun Sanomat, 16 November, p. 14.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Neuvonen, R.. ( 2018), Sananvapauden historia Suomessa (The History of Freedom of Speech in Finland), Helsinki:: Gaudeamus;.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nieminen, H.,, Nordenstreng, K., and Harjuniemi, T.. ( 2013;), ‘ Finland: The rise and fall of a democratic subsidy scheme. ’, in P. Murschetz. (ed.), State Aid for Newspapers, Berlin:: Springer;, pp. 17792.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Nord, L.. ( 2008;), ‘ Comparing Nordic media systems: North between West and East?. ’, Central European Journal of Communication, 1:1, pp. 95110.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Norris, P.. ( 2009;), ‘ Comparative political communications: Common frameworks or Babelian confusion?. ’, Government and Opposition, 44:3, pp. 32140.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. OECD ( 2019;), ‘ Mobile data usage per mobile broadband subscription (2018). ’, OECD , December, http://www.oecd.org/sti/broadband/broadband-statistics/. Accessed 8 March 2020.
  41. Ohlsson, J.. ( 2015), The Nordic Media Market, Gothenburg:: Nordicom;.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Ollus, S.-E., and Simola, H.. ( 2006), Russia in the Finnish Economy, Sitra Reports 66 , Helsinki:: Sitra;.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Ots, M.,, Krumsvik, A. H.,, Ala-Fossi, M., and Rendahl, P.. ( 2016;), ‘ The shifting role of value-added tax (VAT) as a media policy tool: A three-country comparison of political justifications. ’, Javnost: The Public, 23:2, pp. 17087.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Pekkarinen, J.. ( 2018;), ‘ Euroalue ja Suomi: mitä odotettiin, miten on käynyt?’ (‘The Eurozone and Finland: What was expected, what has happened?’). , Talous & Yhteiskunta, 3:2018, pp. 1419.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Pelkonen, A.. ( 2008), Finnish Competition State and Entrepreneurial Policies in the Helsinki Region, Research Reports No. 254 , Helsinki:: Department of Sociology, University of Helsinki;.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Pursiainen, H.. ( 2015;), ‘ Stagnant spectrum policy: Opinion piece, originally published in Kauppalehti in Finnish. ’, 7 December, Helsinki:: Ministry of Transport and Communications;, http://www.lvm.fi/en/-/stagnant-spectrumpolicy-859099. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Reporters Without Borders ( 2019;), ‘ 2019 World Press Freedom Index. ’, RFS , April, https://rsf.org/en/ranking. Accessed 8 March 2020.
  48. Savela, O.. ( 2013;), ‘ Euromaat eivät ole toipuneet talouskriisistä’ (‘The Eurozone has not recovered from recession’). , Hyvinvointikatsaus, 1:2013 , Helsinki:: Statistics Finland;, https://www.stat.fi/artikkelit/2013/art_2013-03-11_003.html?s=1. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Soramäki, M.. ( 2017), Kansallisen infrastruktuurin myynti: Tapaus Digita (Selling National Infrastructure: The Digita Case), Tampere:: COMET, University of Tampere;, https://trepo.tuni.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/101051/kansallisen_infrastruktuurin_myynti_2017.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Syvertsen, T.,, Gunn, E.,, Mjøs, O., and Moe, H.. ( 2014), The Media Welfare State: Nordic Media in the Digital Era, Ann Arbor, MI:: The University of Michigan Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Therborn, G.. ( 2019), Kadotettu kansankoti. Kuinka pääoma kaappasi Ruotsin (Folkhemmet Lost: How Capital Took Over Sweden), Tampere:: Vastapaino;.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Uschanov, T.. ( 2012), Miksi Suomi on Suomi (Why Finland is Finland), Helsinki:: Teos;.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Virmavirta, J.. ( 1992), Julkinen sana ja tuki. Selvitys lehdistötuen kehittämisestä (Press and Public Support: Report on the Development of Press Subsidies), Liikenne- ja viestintäministeriön julkaisuja 9/1992 , Helsinki:: Liikenne- ja viestintäministeriö;.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wiberg, M.. ( 2006;), ‘ Nokiaa ympäröi vaikenemisen muuri’ (‘Nokia is surrounded by a wall of silence’). , Helsingin Sanomat, 22 October, https://www.hs.fi/sunnuntai/art-2000004434573.html. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wolmar, C.. ( 1997;), ‘ BBC rids itself of broadcast network. ’, The Independent, 1 March, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/bbc-rids-itself-of-broadcast-network-1270309.html. Accessed 8 March 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Ala-Fossi, Marko. ( 2020;), ‘ Finland: Media welfare state in the digital era?. ’, Journal of Digital Media & Policy, 11:2, pp. 133150, doi: https://doi.org/10.1386/jdmp_00020_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/jdmp_00020_1
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error