From state-controlled media to video-on-demand platforms: Rethinking global cultural flows and television viewers’ changing habits in the case of Turkey | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 13, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 2516-3523
  • E-ISSN: 2516-3531

Abstract

This study aims to open a discussion on the changing face of cultural imperialism within the context of contemporary capitalism’s conditions and the changing habits of Turkish television viewers. Although the past two decades have witnessed a growing interest in both the changing patterns of television viewing habits and viewers’ class status, this process has focused almost exclusively on the West and specifically Euro-American metropolitan viewers’ experiences. By contrast, very few studies have directly addressed other contexts, specifically, television viewers in non-western countries. Based on and theories, this study analyses the reasons and outcomes behind Turkish television viewers’ ongoing tendency towards the video-on-demand platforms, such as Netflix, HBO, Hulu, Amazon Prime Video or their domestic counterparts, like Puhu or Blu TV, under Turkey’s ongoing modernization process. The results suggest that video-on-demand platforms provide particular interest for television viewers while offering relative freedom from state-controlled public media or strictly regulated private channels. Nevertheless, these platforms have appealed to both Turkish upper-middle-class viewers and younger viewers who have the cultural background to enjoy and appreciate the content on offer. This study also indicates how access to streaming platforms in Turkey mainly relies on the class status of television viewers, and that this kind of cultural flow, to some extent, creates a digital divide in Turkey.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jdmp_00040_1
2022-06-01
2024-04-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abbiss, W. S.. ( 2019;), ‘ Proposing a post-heritage critical framework: The crown, ambiguity and media self-consciousness. ’, Television & New Media, pp. 117.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berg, M.. ( 2017;), ‘ The importance of cultural proximity in the success of Turkish dramas in Qatar. ’, International Journal of Communication, 11, pp. 341530.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Binark, M., and Kılıçbay, B.. ( 2004;), ‘ Türkiye’de Gerçek Televizyonu ve Telegörsel Kimlikler: Biri Bizi Gözetliyor Örneği’ (‘Reality television and televisual identities in Turkey: Someone is watching us’). , İletişim Araştırmaları, 2:1, pp. 7190.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bourdieu, P.. ( 1984), Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, London:: Routledge and Kegan Paul;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Box Office Turkey ( 2019a), 2019 Report, https://boxofficeturkiye.com/yillik/2019/tum-filmler. Accessed 28 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Box Office Turkey ( 2019b), Yılların İlk 47 Hafta Karşılaştırması, https://boxofficeturkiye.com/hafta/yillar. Accessed 1 December 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chalaby, K. J.. ( 2015;), ‘ The advent of the transnational TV format trading system: A global commodity chain analysis. ’, Media, Culture & Society, 37:3, pp. 46078.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Christensen, C. ( 2019;), ‘ The weaponization of doubt: Re-thinking Erdogan in an era of trumpism. ’, Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 12:2, pp. 13348.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. CJ Entertainment ( n.d.;), ‘ News. ’, http://www.cj-entertainment.com. Accessed 19 November 2019.
  10. Cox, C. M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Programming: Flow in the convergence of digital media platforms and television. ’, Critical Studies in Television, 13:4, pp. 43854.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Daily Sabah ( 2019;), ‘ Turkish cinema audience shrinks by 45.1 in first half of 2019. ’, 4 July, https://www.dailysabah.com/cinema/2019/07/04/turkish-cinema-audience-shrinks-by-451-in-first-half-of-2019. Accessed 22 November 2019.
  12. Doyle, G.. ( 2016;), ‘ Digitization and changing windowing strategies in the television industry: Negotiating new windows on the world. ’, Television & New Media, 17:7, pp. 62945.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Elkins, E.. ( 2018;), ‘ Powered by Netflix: Speed test service and video-on-demand’s global development projects. ’, Media, Culture & Society, 40:6, pp. 83855.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. European Union ( 2019;), ‘ Development and forecast of growing consumerism. ’, https://ec.europa.eu/knowledge4policy/growing-consumerism_en. Accessed 30 January 2019.
  15. [Google Scholar]
  16. Evans, E.,, McDonald, P.,, Bae, J.,, Ray, S., and Santos, E.. ( 2016;), ‘ Universal ideals in local realities: Online viewing in South Korea, Brazil and India. ’, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 22:4, pp. 40825.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fagerjord, A., and Kueng, L.. ( 2019;), ‘ Mapping the core actors and flows in streaming video services: What Netflix can tell about these new media networks. ’, Journal of Media Business Studies, Article First.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gillbert, A.. ( 2019;), ‘ Push, pull, rerun: Television reruns and steaming media. ’, Television & New Media, 20:7, pp. 686701.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hesmondhalgh, D., and Lobato, R.. ( 2019;), ‘ Television device ecologies, prominence and datafication: The neglected importance of the set-top box. ’, Media, Culture & Society’, 41:7, pp. 95874.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hoskins, C., and Mirus, R.. ( 1998;), ‘ Reasons for US dominance of the international trade in television programmes. ’, Media, Culture and Society, 10, pp. 499515.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. IAMCR ( 2019;), ‘ The media industry in Turkey. ’, https://iamcr.org/medindturkey-2. Accessed 20 December 2019.
  22. Ju, H.. ( 2020;), ‘ Korean TV drama viewership on Netflix: Transcultural affection, romance and identities. ’, Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 13:1, pp. 3248.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kaliber, A., and Kaliber, E.. ( 2019;), ‘ From de-Europeanisation to anti-western populism: Turkish foreign policy in flux. ’, The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs, 54:4, pp. 116.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Katz, E., and Wedell, G.. ( 1990), Broadcasting in the Third World: Promise and Performance, Cambridge:: Harvard University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kaymas, S.. ( 2019a;), ‘ Is development possible without cultural policies: Rethinking creative industries and sustainable development Nexus in the case of Turkey. ’, Creative Industries Journal, Article First, doi: 10.80/175/10694.2019.1652026.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kaymas, S.. ( 2019b;), ‘ Geography… is it your destiny: Culturally sustainable development and creative industries Nexus in the case of Turkey. ’, European Planning Studies, doi: 10.1080/096543.2019.1694865.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kaymas, S.. ( 2011;), ‘ Media policy paradigm shift in Turkey: Rethinking neo authoritarian media systems in the age of neo liberalism. ’, Acta Universitatis Danubius Comminicatio, 5:1, pp. 4069.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Keinonen, H.. ( 2018;), ‘ The power of the format catalogue: How global institutional structures determine television production in a small national market. ’, Critical Studies in Television: The International Journal of Television Studies, 13:2, pp. 15368.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kenyon, P.. ( 2019;), ‘ New law in Turkey has people in film, TV industries worried about censorship. ’, NPR, 3 November, https://www.npr.org/2019/03/11/702355704/new-law-in-turkey-has-people-in-film-tv-industries-worried-about-censorship. Accessed 24 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kostovska, I.,, Raats, T., and Donders, K.. ( 2020;), ‘ The rise of the “Netflix tax” and what it means for sustaining European audiovisual markets. ’, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, Article First.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ksiazek, T., and Webster, J. C.. ( 2008;), ‘ Cultural proximity and audience behaviour: The role of language in patterns of polarization and multicultural fluency. ’, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52:3, pp. 405503.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lee, F. L. F.. ( 2006;), ‘ Cultural discount and cross-culture predictability: Examining the box office performance of American movies in Hong-Kong. ’, Journal of Media Economics, 19:4, pp. 25978.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lee, F. L. F.. ( 2008;), ‘ Hollywood movies in East Asia: Examining cultural discount and performance predictability at the box office. ’, Asian Journal of Communication, 18:2, pp. 11736.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Leiva, M. T., and Albornoz, L.. ( 2020;), ‘ VOD service providers and regulation in the European Union: An audiovisual diversity approach. ’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, Article First.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Li, J.,, Liu, X., and Cheng, Y.. ( 2019;), ‘ Cultural proximity and genre proximity: How do Chinese viewers enjoy American and Korean TV dramas. ’, Sage Open, January–March, pp. 110.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Livingstone, S.. ( 2019;), ‘ Audiences in an age of datafication: Critical questions for media research. ’, Television & New Media, 20:2, pp. 17083.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lobato, R.. ( 2018;), ‘ Rethinking international TV flows research in the age of Netflix. ’, Television and New Media, 19:3, pp. 24156.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lobato, R.. ( 2019), Netflix Nations: The Geography of Digital Distribution, New York:: New York University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lotz, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ Evolution or revolution? Television in transformation. ’, Critical Studies in Television: The International Journal of Television Studies, 13:4, pp. 49194.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Market Research ( 2019;), ‘ Broadcasting and cable television in Turkey. ’, September, https://www.marketresearch.com/MarketLine-v3883/Broadcasting-Cable-TV-Turkey-12763757/. Accessed 20 December 2019.
  41. Mattelart, A.. ( 1983), Transnational and the Third World: The Struggle for Culture (trans. D. Buxton), South Hadley, MA:: Bergin and Garvey Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Mckelvey, F., and Hunt, R.. ( 2019;), ‘ Discoverability: Towards a definition of content discovery through platforms. ’, Social Media + Society, January–March, pp. 115.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism ( 2018), 2018 Gişe Raporu (Turkey Counter Report in 2018), https://www.ktb.gov.tr/?_Dil=2. Accessed 19 November 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism ( 2019;), ‘ An overview of the history of Turkish cinema. ’, http://www.sinema.ktb.gov.tr. Accessed 22 November 2019.
  45. Netflix ( 2019;), ‘ Hakan Muhafız. ’, http://www.netflix.com.tr. Accessed 31 December 2019.
  46. The New Turkey ( 2019;), ‘ What is behind the ticket sales debate in Turkish cinema?. ’, 10 January, https://politicstoday.org/author/thenewturkey_3. Accessed 22 November 2019.
  47. Official Gazette ( 2019;), ‘ Sinema Filmlerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Sınıflandırılması İle Desteklenmesi Hakkında Kanunda Değişiklik Yapılmasına Dair Kanun. ’, 18 January, https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2019/01/20190130-7.htm. Accessed 23 November 2019.
  48. Öniş, Z., and Bakır, C.. ( 2007;), ‘ Turkey’s political economy in the age of financial globalization: The significance of the EU anchor. ’, South European Society & Politics, 12:2, pp. 14764.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Özçetin, B.. ( 2019;), ‘ The show of the people against the cultural elites: Populism, media and popular culture in Turkey. ’, European Journal of Cultural Studies, 22:5&6, pp. 94257.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Pilipets, E.. ( 2019;), ‘ From Netflix streaming to Netflix and chill: The (dis)connected body of serial binge-viewer. ’, Social Media + Society, October–December, pp. 113.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Rankin, B., and Ergin, M.. ( 2017;), ‘ Cultural omnivorousness in Turkey. ’, Current Sociology, 65:7, pp. 107092.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Rasmussen, T.. ( 2014), Personal Media and Everyday Life: A Networking Lifeworld, New York:: Palgrave Macmillan Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Schiller, H. I.. ( 1976), Communication and Cultural Domination, White Plains, NY:: International Arts and Sciences Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Schnitzer, B.. ( 2019;), ‘ Netflix: Canadian (dis)content: Competing sovereignties and the cultural politics of cultural policy. ’, American Review of Canadian Studies, 49:1, pp. 85104.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Sözeri, C.. ( 2013;), ‘ The political economy of the media and its impact on freedom of expression in Turkey. ’, in C. Rodrigez,, A. Avalos,, H. Yılmaz, and A. I. Planet. (eds), Turkey’s Democratization Process, Oxford:: Routledge;, pp. 391404.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Sözeri, C.. ( 2019;), ‘ The transformation of Turkey’s Islamic media and its marriage with neo-liberalism. ’, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 19:1, pp. 15574.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Statista ( 2019a;), ‘ Video on demand Turkey. ’, https://www.statista.com/outlook/201/113/video-on-demand/turkey. Accessed 31 December 2019.
  58. Statista ( 2019b;), ‘ Turkey: Number of internet users 2013-2019. ’, https://www.statista.com/statistics/369725/internet-users-turkey/. Accessed 31 December 2019.
  59. Straubhaar, D. J.,, Castro, D.,, Duarte, L. G., and Spence, J.. ( 2019;), ‘ Class, pay TV access and Netflix in Latin America. ’, Critical Studies in Television, 14:2, pp. 22354.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Straubhaar, J. D.. ( 1991;), ‘ Beyond media imperialism: Asymmetrical interdependence and cultural proximity. ’, Critical Studies in Media Communication, 8, pp. 3959.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Teammy ( 2019;), ‘ Turkey passed a new cinema law. ’, https://www.statista.com/statistics/567027/predicted-number-of-internet-users-in-turkey/. Accessed 24 November 2019.
  62. Thussu, D. K.. ( 2000), International Communication: Continuity and Change, London:: Arnold;.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. TRT ( 2019;), ‘ Tarihçe (the history of TRT). ’, https://www.trt.net.tr/anasayfa/anasayfa.aspx. Accessed 16 December 2019.
  64. Turner, G.. ( 2019;), ‘ Approaching the cultures of use: Netflix, disruption and the audience. ’, Critical Studies in Television, 14:2, pp. 22232.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. UNDP ( 2019), Human Development Report 2019, http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019.pdf. Accessed 30 December 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. UNESCO ( 1980), Many Voices, One World: Communication and Society Today and Tomorrow, Paris:: UNESCO;.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Variety ( 2019;), ‘ Korea’s CJ to finance, distribute 25 Turkish films by 2019. ’, 21 June, https://variety.com/2018/film/asia/korea-cj-to-finance-distribute-turkey-films-1202851963/. Accessed 18 November 2019.
  68. Vukanovic, Z.. ( 2016), Foreign Direct Investment Inflows into the South East European Media Market: Towards a Hybrid Business Model, New York:: Springer Publishing;.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Wallerstein, I.. ( 1979), The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge:: Cambridge University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Wayne, L. M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Netflix, Amazon and branded television content in subscription video-on-demand portals. ’, Media, Culture & Society, 40:5, pp. 72541.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Wayne, L. M.. ( 2020;), ‘ Global streaming platforms and national pay-television markets: A case study of Netflix and multi-channel providers in Israel. ’, The Communication Review, 23:1, pp. 2945.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Yesil, B.. ( 2015;), ‘ Transnationalization of Turkish dramas: Exploring the convergence of local and global market imperatives. ’, Global Media and Communication, 11:1, pp. 4360.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kaymas, Serhat. ( 2022;), ‘ From state-controlled media to video-on-demand platforms: Rethinking global cultural flows and television viewers’ changing habits in the case of Turkey. ’, Journal of Digital Media & Policy, 13:2, pp. 18199, https://doi.org/10.1386/jdmp_00040_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/jdmp_00040_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/jdmp_00040_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error