Skip to content
1981
Seeing the (In)Justice of Sustainability: Visualizing Inequality at the Centre of Climate Change Communication
  • ISSN: 2632-2463
  • E-ISSN: 2632-2471

Abstract

Despite widespread acceptance amongst researchers, climate change and responses to it remain a socially and politically debated topic. Within cartography and cognate disciplines, this has often been construed as an issue of communication: maps are tools for communication and better maps will lead to greater understanding of and responses to climate change. While existing research has shown some support for the efficacy of such approaches, this article calls into question the underlying assumptions of access and equity that pervade such communicative approaches to mapmaking and data visualization. Two new case studies from the authors’ research group highlight the importance of greater consideration of equity and access for climate change communication cartography (CCCC): first, an experiment on the use of storytelling and narrative in maps of climate impacts and, second, an augmented reality tool that presented users with storm surge information for their region. These two cases lead us to an interrogation of the assumptions that undergird claims for the rhetorical power of using cartographic stories and augmented reality. It is, we argue, somewhat of a luxury to experience climate change through stories, not lived experiences or through augmented reality, as opposed to forced displacement. We conclude by reinterrogating the map communication model in light of understandings of maps as constantly made and remade by both map author and map user. By calling into question the ontogenetic security of maps, CCCC can better understand both the impacts and equities of its maps.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jem_00074_1
2022-10-01
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Appel, M.,, Gnambs, T.,, Richter, T., and Green, M. C.. ( 2015;), ‘ The transportation scale-short form (TS-SF). ’, Media Psychology, 18:2, pp. 24366.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bergmann, L., and Lally, N.. ( 2021;), ‘ For geographical imagination systems. ’, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 111:1, pp. 2635.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bertin, J.. ( 1983), Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps (trans. W. J., Berg.), Madison, WI:: The University of Wisconsin Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bhatia, A., and Popovich, N.. ( 2021;), ‘ These maps tell the story of two Americas: One parched, one soaked. ’, New York Times, 24 August, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/08/24/climate/warmer-wetter-world.html. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bloomfield, E. F., and Manktelow, C.. ( 2021;), ‘ Climate communication and storytelling. ’, Climatic Change, 167:3, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-021-03199-6. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Board, C.. ( 1967;), ‘ Maps as models. ’, in R. J. Chorley, and P. Haggett. (eds), Models in Geography, London:: Methuen;, pp. 671725.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bressler, D. M., and Bodzin, A. M.. ( 2013;), ‘ A mixed methods assessment of students’ flow experiences during a mobile augmented reality science game. ’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29:6, pp. 50517, https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12008. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bronack, S. C.. ( 2011;), ‘ The role of immersive media in online education. ’, The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 59:2, pp. 11317, https://doi.org/10.1080/07377363.2011.583186. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cairo, A.. ( 2016), The Truthful Art: Data, Charts, and Maps for Communication, Westlake Village, CA:: New Riders;.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Caquard, S.. ( 2011;), ‘ Cartography I: Mapping narrative cartography. ’, Progress in Human Geography, 37:1, pp. 13544, https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0309132511423796. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Caquard, S., and Cartwright, W.. ( 2014;), ‘ Narrative cartography: From mapping stories to the narrative of maps and mapping. ’, The Cartographic Journal, 51:2, pp. 10106, https://doi.org/10.1179/0008704114Z.000000000130. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Caquard, S., and Dormann, C.. ( 2008;), ‘ Humorous maps: Explorations of an alternative cartography. ’, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 35:1, pp. 5164, https://doi.org/10.1559/152304008783475670. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Caquard, S., and Griffin, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ Mapping emotional cartography. ’, Cartographic Perspectives, 91, pp. 416.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chang, H.-Y.,, Wu, H.-K., and Hsu, Y.-S.. ( 2013;), ‘ Integrating a mobile augmented reality activity to contextualize student learning of a socioscientific issue. ’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 44:3, pp. E9599.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cheng, K.-H., and Tsai, C.-C.. ( 2013;), ‘ Affordances of augmented reality in science learning: Suggestions for future research. ’, Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22:4, pp. 44962.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Collective, C. C.,, Dalton, C., and Mason-Deese, L.. ( 2012;), ‘ Counter (mapping) actions: Mapping as militant research. ’, ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 11:3, pp. 43966.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cook, J.,, Nuccitelli, D.,, Green, S. A.,, Richardson, M.,, Winkler, B.,, Painting, R.,, Way, R.,, Jacobs, P., and Skuce, A.. ( 2013;), ‘ Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature. ’, Environmental Research Letters, 8:2, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024024. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Crampton, J. W.. ( 2001;), ‘ Maps as social constructions: Power, communication and visualization. ’, Progress in Human Geography, 25:1, pp. 23552, https://doi.org/10.1191/030913201678580494. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dahlstrom, M. F.. ( 2014;), ‘ Using narratives and storytelling to communicate science with nonexpert audiences. ’, PNAS, 111:4, pp. 1361420, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320645111. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dede, C.. ( 2009;), ‘ Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. ’, Science, 323:5910, pp. 6669.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. DiBiase, D.. ( 1990;), ‘ Visualization in the earth sciences. ’, Earth and Mineral Sciences, 59:2, pp. 1318.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dodge, M.,, Kitchin, R., and Perkins, C.. ( 2009), Rethinking Maps, London:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dodge, M.,, Kitchin, R., and Perkins, C.. ( 2011), The Map Reader: Theories of Mapping Practice and Cartographic Representation, Oxford:: Wiley-Blackwell;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Drennen, A., and Hardin, S.. ( 2021;), ‘ Climate deniers in the 117th congress. ’, Center for American Progress, 30 March, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/news/2021/03/30/497685/climate-deniers-117th-congress/. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Dunleavy, M.,, Dede, C., and Mitchell, R.. ( 2009;), ‘ Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. ’, Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18:1, pp. 722, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-008-9119-1. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Edney, M. H.. ( 2019), Cartography: The Ideal and Its History, Chicago, IL:: University of Chicago Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Fabrikant, S. I.,, Christophe, S.,, Papastefanou, G., and Maggi, S.. ( 2012;), ‘ Emotional response to map design aesthetics. ’, 7th International Conference on Geographical Information Science, Columbus, OH, 18–21 September, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9587/18a7e7d08932b027cf2baf6fa8d02cc07c39.pdf. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Fabrikant, S. I., and Skupin, A.. ( 2005;), ‘ Cognitively plausible information visualization. ’, in J. Dykes,, A. M. MacEachren, and M.-J. Kraak. (eds), Exploring Geovisualization, Amsterdam:: Elsevier;, pp. 66790.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Fish, C.. ( 2020a;), ‘ Cartographic content analysis of compelling climate change communication. ’, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 47:6, pp. 492507.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Fish, C.. ( 2020b;), ‘ Elements of vivid cartography. ’, The Cartographic Journal, 58:2, pp. 117.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fish, C.. ( 2020c;), ‘ Storytelling for making cartographic design decisions for climate change communication in the United States. ’, Cartographica: The International Journal of Geographic Information and Geovisualization, 55:2, pp. 6984, https://doi.org/10.3138/cart-2019-0019. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Freitag, U.. ( 1971;), ‘ Semiotik and Kartographie: Uber die Anwendung Kybernetischer Disziplinen in der theoretishen Kartographie. ’, Kartographische Nachrichten, 21:5, p. 171.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Frosch, R. M.,, Pastor, M.,, Sadd, J., and Shonkoff, S.. ( 2018;), ‘ The climate gap: Inequalities in how climate change hurts Americans and how to close the gap. ’, in E. M. Hamin Infield,, Y. Abunnasr, and R. L. Ryan. (eds), Planning for Climate Change, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fujikane, C.. ( 2021), Mapping Abundance for a Planetary Future: Kanaka Maoli and Critical Settler Cartographies in Hawai’i, Durham, NC:: Duke University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Garrison, M.. ( 2021;), ‘ Transportation, emotion, and climate change attitude: Understanding map reader response to storytelling maps. ’, master’s thesis, Eugene, OR:: University of Oregon, https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/26728. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Green, M. C., and Brock, T. C.. ( 2000;), ‘ The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. ’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79:5, pp. 70121, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.701. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Griffin, A., and McQuoid, J.. ( 2012;), ‘ At the intersection of maps and emotion: The challenge of spatially representing experience. ’, Kartographische Nachrichten, 62:6, pp. 29199.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Grothmann, T., and Reusswig, F.. ( 2006;), ‘ People at risk of flooding: Why some residents take precautionary action while others do not. ’, Natural Hazards, 38:1&2, pp. 10120, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-005-8604-6. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Gustafson, A.,, Ballew, M. T.,, Goldberg, M. H.,, Cutler, M. J.,, Rosenthal, S. A., and Leiserowitz, A.. ( 2020;), ‘ Personal stories can shift climate change beliefs and risk perceptions: The mediating role of emotion. ’, Communication Reports, 33:3, pp. 12135, https://doi.org/10.1080/08934215.2020.1799049. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hake, G.. ( 1973;), ‘ Kartographie und Kommunikation. ’, Kartographische Nachrichten, 23:4, pp. 13748.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Haraway, D.. ( 1988;), ‘ Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privileges of partial perspective. ’, Feminist Studies, 14:3, pp. 57599.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Harley, J. B.. ( 1988;), ‘ Silences and secrecy: The hidden agenda of cartography in early modern Europe. ’, Imago Mundi, 40, pp. 5776.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Harley, J. B.. ( 1989;), ‘ Deconstructing the map. ’, Cartographica, 26:2, pp. 120.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hart, P. S., and Nisbet, E. C.. ( 2011;), ‘ Boomerang effects in science communication: How motivated reasoning and identity cues amplify opinion polarization about climate mitigation policies. ’, Communication Research, 39:6, pp. 70123, https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650211416646. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hatfield, J., and Job, R. F. S.. ( 2001;), ‘ Optimism bias about environmental degradation: The role of the range of impact of precautions. ’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21:1, pp. 1730, https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2000.0190. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Haynes, P.,, Hehl-Lange, S., and Lange, E.. ( 2018;), ‘ Mobile augmented reality for flood visualisation. ’, Environmental Modelling & Software, 109, pp. 38089.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Haynes, P., and Lange, E.. ( 2016;), ‘ Mobile augmented reality for flood visualisation in urban riverside landscapes. ’, JoDLA: Journal of Digital Landscape Architecture, 1, pp. 25462.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Johannsen, I. M.,, Lassonde, K. A.,, Wilkerson, F., and Schaab, G.. ( 2018;), ‘ Communicating climate change: Reinforcing comprehension and personal ties to climate change through maps. ’, The Cartographic Journal, 55:1, pp. 85100.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Kahan, D. M.,, Jenkins-Smith, H., and Braman, D.. ( 2011;), ‘ Cultural cognition of scientific consensus. ’, Journal of Risk Research, 14:2, pp. 14774, https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2010.511246. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Kahele, M., and Louis, R. P.. ( 2017), Kanaka Hawai’i Cartography: Hula, Navigation, and Oratory, Corvallis, OR:: Oregon State University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Keller, C.,, Siegrist, M., and Gutscher, H.. ( 2006;), ‘ The role of the affect and availability heuristics in risk communication. ’, Risk Analysis, 26:3, pp. 63139, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2006.00773.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kelley, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Framing digital exclusion in technologically mediated urban spaces. ’, in J. Thatcher,, J. Eckert, and A. Shears. (eds), Thinking Big Data in Geography: New Regimes, New Research, Lincoln, NE:: University of Nebraska Press;, pp. 17893.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kitchin, R., and Dodge, M.. ( 2007;), ‘ Rethinking maps. ’, Progress in Human Geography, 31:3, pp. 33144, https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132507077082. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Klopfer, E., and Sheldon, J.. ( 2010;), ‘ Augmenting your own reality: Student authoring of science-based augmented reality games. ’, New Directions for Youth Development, 2010:128, pp. 8594, https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.378. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Koláčnỳ, A.. ( 1969;), ‘ Cartographic information: A fundamental concept and term in modern cartography. ’, The Cartographic Journal, 6:1, pp. 4749.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Koss, J.. ( 2006;), ‘ On the limits of empathy. ’, The Art Bulletin, 88:1, pp. 13957.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Kostelnick, J. C.,, McDermott, D.,, Rowley, R. J., and Bunnyfield, N.. ( 2013;), ‘ A cartographic framework for visualizing risk. ’, Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization, 48:3, pp. 20024.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Krygier, J. B.. ( 1995;), ‘ Cartography as an art and a science?. ’, Cartographica, 32:6, pp. 310.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Lee, K. M.. ( 2004;), ‘ Presence, explicated. ’, Communication Theory, 14:1, pp. 2750, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00302.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Leiserowitz, A.. ( 2006;), ‘ Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. ’, Climatic Change, 77:1, pp. 4572.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Leiserowitz, A.,, Roser-Renouf, C.,, Marlon, J., and Maibach, E.. ( 2021;), ‘ Global warming’s six Americas: A review and recommendations for climate change communication. ’, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 42, pp. 97103, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2021.04.007. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Leiserowitz, A. A.. ( 2005;), ‘ American risk perceptions: Is climate change dangerous?. ’, Risk Analysis, 25:6, pp. 143342, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6261.2005.00690.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Linville, P. W., and Fischer, G. W.. ( 1991;), ‘ Preferences for separating or combining events. ’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60:1, pp. 523, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.1.5. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Loewenstein, G. F.,, Weber, E. U.,, Hsee, C. K., and Welch, N.. ( 2001;), ‘ Risk as feelings. ’, Psychological Bulletin, 127:2, pp. 26786, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.267. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Lorenzoni, I.,, Nicholson-Cole, S., and Whitmarsh, L.. ( 2007;), ‘ Barriers perceived to engaging with climate change among the UK public and their policy implications. ’, Global Environmental Change, 17:3&4, pp. 44559, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.01.004. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Lynas, M.,, Houlton, B. Z., and Simon, P.. ( 2021;), ‘ Greater than 99% consensus on human caused climate change in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. ’, Environmental Research Letters, 16:11, pp. 17, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac2966. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. MacEachren, A. M.. ( 1994;), ‘ Visualization in modern cartography: Setting the agenda. ’, Visualization in Modern Cartography, 28:1, pp. 112.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. MacEachren, A. M.. ( 1995), How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design, New York:: Guilford Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. McKendry, J. E., and Machlis, G. E.. ( 2009;), ‘ Cartographic design and the quality of climate change maps. ’, Climatic Change, 95:1, pp. 21930.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Miller, J. D.. ( 1983;), ‘ Scientific literacy: A conceptual and empirical review. ’, Daedalus, 112:2, pp. 2948.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Mirauda, D.,, Erra, U.,, Agatiello, R., and Cerverizzo, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ Mobile augmented reality for flood events management. ’, International Journal of Sustainable Development Planning, 13:3, pp. 41824.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Mocnik, F., and Fairbairn, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ Maps telling stories?. ’, The Cartographic Journal, 55:1, pp. 3657, https://doi.org/10.1080/00087041.2017.1304498. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Montello, D. R.. ( 2002;), ‘ Cognitive map-design research in the twentieth century: Theoretical and empirical approaches. ’, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 29:3, pp. 283304.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Montello, D. R.. ( 2009;), ‘ Cognitive research in GIScience: Recent achievements and future prospects. ’, Geography Compass, 3:5, pp. 182440.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Morris, B. S.,,  Chrysochou, P.,, Christensen, J. D.,,  Orquin, J. L.,, Barraza, J.,, Zak, P. J., and  Mitkidis, P.. ( 2019;), ‘ Stories vs. facts: Triggering emotion and action-taking on climate change. ’, Climatic Change, 154:1&2, pp. 1936, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-019-02425-6. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Moser, S. C.. ( 2007;), ‘ More bad news: The risk of neglecting emotional responses to climate change information. ’, in S. C. Moser, and L. Dilling. (eds), Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change, Cambridge:: Cambridge University Press;, pp. 6480.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Mufson, S.,, Mooney, C.,, Eilperin, J., and Muyskens, J.. ( 2019;), ‘ 2°C: Beyond the limit: Extreme climate change has arrived in America. ’, The Washington Post, 13 August, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/national/climate-environment/climate-change-america/. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. O’Neill, S., and Nicholson-Cole, S.. ( 2009;), ‘ “Fear won’t do it”: Promoting positive engagement with climate change through visual and iconic representations. ’, Science Communication, 30:3, pp. 35579, https://doi.org/10.1177/1075547008329201. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Pearce, M. W.. ( 2008;), ‘ Framing the days: Place and narrative in cartography. ’, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 35:1, pp. 1732, https://doi.org/10.1559/152304008783475661. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Pickles, J.. ( 2004), A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping and the Geo-coded World, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ratajski, L.. ( 1977;), ‘ The research structure of theoretical cartography. ’, Cartographica: The International Journal of Geographic Information and Geovisualization, 14:1, pp. 4657.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Retchless, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ Testing augmented reality tools for communicating storm surge and encouraging preparedness: A survey of Texas A&M at Galveston students. ’, 98th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, Austin, TX, 7–11 January, https://ams.confex.com/ams/98Annual/webprogram/Paper335703.html. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Retchless, D.. ( 2019;), ‘ Map and augmented reality views of storm surge flooding: Results from pilot studies evaluating effects of perspective on risk perceptions and engagement. ’, American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 3–7 April.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Retchless, D. P.. ( 2014;), ‘ Sea level rise maps: How individual differences complicate the cartographic communication of an uncertain climate change hazard. ’, Cartographic Perspectives, 77, pp. 1732, https://doi.org/10.14714/CP77.1235. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Rickard, L. N.,, Yang, J. Z.,, Liu, S., and Boze, T.. ( 2021;), ‘ Fish tales: How narrative modality, emotion, and transportation influence support for sustainable aquaculture. ’, Science Communication, 43:2, pp. 25275, https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1075547020987555. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Robinson, A. H.. ( 1952;), ‘ The look of maps: An examination of cartographic design. ’, The American Cartographer, 13:3, p. 280.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Robinson, A. H.,, Morrison, J. L.,, Muehrcke, P. C.,, Kimerling, A. J., and Guptill, S. C.. (eds) ( 1995), Elements of Cartography, , 6th ed.., New York:: Wiley;.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Rose-Redwood, R.. ( 2015;), ‘ Introduction: The limits to deconstructing the map. ’, Cartographica, 50:1, pp. 18.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Roth, R. E.. ( 2021;), ‘ Cartographic design as visual storytelling: Synthesis and review of map-based narratives, genres, and tropes. ’, The Cartographic Journal, 58:1, pp. 83114.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Schuurman, N.. ( 2000;), ‘ Trouble in the heartland: GIS and its critics in the 1990s. ’, Progress in Human Geography, 24:4, pp. 56990.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Sermet, Y., and Demir, I.. ( 2020;), ‘ Virtual and augmented reality applications for environmental science education and training. ’, in L. Daniela. (ed.), New Perspectives on Virtual and Augmented Reality, London:: Routledge;, pp. 25772.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Shannon, C. E.. ( 1948;), ‘ A mathematical theory of communication. ’, The Bell System Technical Journal, 27:3, pp. 379423.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Siegrist, M., and Gutscher, H.. ( 2008;), ‘ Natural hazards and motivation for mitigation behavior: People cannot predict the affect evoked by a severe flood. ’, Risk Analysis, 28:3, pp. 77178, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2008.01049.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Simis, M. J.,, Madden, H.,, Cacciatore, M. A., and Yeo, S. K.. ( 2016;), ‘ The lure of rationality: Why does the deficit model persist in science communication?. ’, Public Understanding of Science, 25:4, pp. 40014, https://doi.org/10.1177/0963662516629749. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Simpson, M.,, Padilla, L.,, Keller, K., and Klippel, A.. ( 2022;), ‘ Immersive storm surge flooding: Scale and risk perception in virtual reality. ’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2022.101764. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Smith, N., and Leiserowitz, A.. ( 2014;), ‘ The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition. ’, Risk Analysis, 34:5, pp. 93748, https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12140. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Smørdal, O.,, Liestøl, G., and Erstad, O.. ( 2016;), ‘ Exploring situated knowledge building using mobile augmented reality. ’, Qwerty-Open and Interdisciplinary Journal of Technology, Culture and Education, 11:1, pp. 2643.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Spence, A., and Pidgeon, N.. ( 2010;), ‘ Framing and communicating climate change: The effects of distance and outcome frame manipulations. ’, Global Environmental Change, 20:4, pp. 65667, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.07.002. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Spence, A.,, Poortinga, W., and Pidgeon, N.. ( 2012;), ‘ The psychological distance of climate change. ’, Risk Analysis, 32:6, pp. 95772, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01695.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Terpstra, T.. ( 2011;), ‘ Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: Affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior. ’, Risk Analysis, 31:10, pp. 165875, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01616.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Thatcher, J.. ( 2018;), ’ Cartography and power. ’, in Wilson, J. P.. (ed.), The Geographic Information Science & Technology Body of Knowledge, https://doi.org/10.22224/gistbok/2018.1.7. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Trope, Y., and Liberman, N.. ( 2010;), ‘ Construal-level theory of psychological distance. ’, Psychological Review, 117:2, pp. 44063, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020319. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Tyner, J. A.. ( 1982;), ‘ Persuasive cartography. ’, Journal of Geography, 81:4, pp. 14044.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Usoh, M.,, Catena, E.,, Arman, S., and Slater, M.. ( 2000;), ‘ Using presence questionnaires in reality. ’, Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 9:5, pp. 497503.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Van Boven, L.,, Kane, J.,, Peter, M. A., and Jeannette, D.. ( 2010;), ‘ Feeling close: Emotional intensity reduces perceived psychological distance. ’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98:6, pp. 87285, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019262. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Wachinger, G.,, Renn, O.,, Begg, C., and Kuhlicke, C.. ( 2013;), ‘ The risk perception paradox: Implications for governance and communication of natural hazards. ’, Risk Analysis, 33:6, pp. 104965, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01942.x. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Weaver, W.. ( 1953;), ‘ Recent contributions to the mathematical theory of communication. ’, ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 10:4, pp. 26181.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Weber, E. U.. ( 1997;), ‘ Perception and expectation of climate change: Precondition for economic and technological adaptation. ’, in M. Bazerman,, D. Messick, D., A. Tenbrunsel, and K. Wade-Benzoni. (eds), Psychological Perspectives to Environmental and Ethical Issues in Management, San Francisco, CA:: Jossey-Bass;, pp. 31441.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Weigert, H.W.. ( 1941;), ‘ Maps are weapons. ’, Survey Graphic, 30, pp. 52830.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Whitmarsh, L.. ( 2011;), ‘ Scepticism and uncertainty about climate change: Dimensions, determinants and change over time. ’, Global Environmental Change, 21:2, pp. 690700, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.01.016. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Wilmott, C.,, Perkins, C.,, Lammes, S.,, Hind, S.,, Gekker, A.,, Fraser, E., and Evans, D.. (eds) ( 2016), Playful Mapping in the Digital Age, Amsterdam:: Institute of Network Cultures;.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Wood, D.. ( 1993;), ‘ The fine line between mapping and mapmaking. ’, Cartographica, 30:4, pp. 5060.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Wu, H.-K.,, Lee, S. W.-Y.,, Chang, H.-Y., and Liang, J.-C.. ( 2013;), ‘ Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education. ’, Computers & Education, 62, pp. 4149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.024. Accessed 4 August 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Retchless, David,, Fish, Carolyn, and Thatcher, Jim. ( 2022;), ‘ Climate change communication beyond the digital divide: Exploring cartography’s role and privilege in climate action. ’, Journal of Environmental Media, 3:1, pp. 10123, https://doi.org/10.1386/jem_00074_1
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1386/jem_00074_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/jem_00074_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error