Intellectual disability through gaming: Operationalizing accessibility, participation and inclusion | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 14, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1757-191X
  • E-ISSN: 1757-1928

Abstract

Nowadays, the potential of games to promote well-being and social inclusion is already widely documented by research. Yet, how this potential can reach out to underrepresented communities, namely those with very specific accessibility needs, ensuring their participation, is still somewhat unexplored. The present article discusses accessibility, participation and inclusion as three pillars to address the relationship between gaming and intellectual disability (ID). Through this approach, more participatory models of game development and research are proposed, including the operationalization of the social model of disability and the relevance of the context. Therefore, it proposes concrete models, where accessibility is part of the creative process, to better include the voice of the player with ID into gameplay and ensure a final media object that, more than accessible, narratively represents the experience of having this disability.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) (Award EXPL/COM-OUT/0882/2021)
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jgvw_00055_1
2022-07-01
2024-02-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Acharya, D., and Wardrip-Fruin, N.. ( 2019;), ‘ Building worlds together: Understanding collaborative co-creation of game worlds. ’, FDG ‘19: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, San Luis Obispo, 26–30 August, https://doi.org/10.1145/3337722.3337748. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. American Psychiatric Association ( 2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5, Washington, DC:: American Psychiatric Publishing;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson-Barkley, T., and Foglesong, K.. ( 2018;), ‘ Activism in video games: A new voice for social change. ’, in K. L. Gray, and D. J. Leonard. (eds), Woke Gaming: Digital Challenges to Oppression and Social Justice, Seattle:: University of Washington Press;, pp. 25269.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ardevól, E., and Gómez-Cruz, E.. ( 2014;), ‘ Digital ethnography and media practices. ’, in A. N. Valdivia. (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies, Hoboken, NJ:: John Wiley & Sons;, pp. 221.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barnes, C.. ( 2019;), ‘ Understanding the social model of disability: Past, present and future. ’, in N. Watson, and S. Vehmas. (eds), Routledge Handbook of Disability Studies, London:: Routledge;, pp. 1229.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Belman, J., and Flanagan, M.. ( 2010;), ‘ Designing games to foster empathy. ’, Cognitive Technology, 14:2, pp. 515.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bleumers, L.,, All, A.,, Mariën, I.,, Shurmans, D.,, Shurmans, D.,, Van Looy, J.,, Jacobs, A.,, Willaert, K., and de Grove, F.. ( 2012), State of Play of Digital Games for Empowerment and Inclusion: A Review of the Literature and Empirical Cases, Luxembourg:: Publications Office of the European Union;.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Boland, M.,, Daly, L., and Staines, A.. ( 2008;), ‘ Methodological issues in inclusive intellectual disability research: A health promotion needs assessment of people attending Irish disability services. ’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21:3, pp. 199209, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3148.2007.00404.x. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Boyle, E.,, Hainey, T.,, Connolly, T.,, Gray, G.,, Earp, J.,, Ott, M.,, Lim, T.,, Ninaus, M.,, Ribeiro, C., and Pereira, J.. ( 2016;), ‘ An update to the systematic literature review of empirical evidence of the impacts and outcomes of computer games and serious games. ’, Computers & Education, 94, pp. 17892, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.003. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chee, F.,, Hjorth, L., and Davies, H.. ( 2021;), ‘ An ethnographic co-design approach to promoting diversity in the games industry. ’, Feminist Media Studies, https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2021.1905680. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cobigo, V.,, Ouellette-Kuntz, H.,, Lysaght, R., and Martin, L.. ( 2012;), ‘ Shifting our conceptualization of social inclusion. ’, Stigma Research and Action, 2:2, pp. 7584, http://dx.doi.org/10.5463/sra.v1i3.45. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cooney, P.,, Jackman, C.,, Coyle, D., and O’Reilly, G.. ( 2017;), ‘ Computerised cognitive-behavioural therapy for adults with intellectual disability: Randomised controlled trial. ’, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 11:2, pp. 95102, https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.117.198630. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Costikyan, G.. ( 2002;), ‘ I have no words and I must design: Toward a critical vocabulary for games. ’, in F. Mäyrä. (ed.), Proceedings of Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference, Tampere:: Tampere University Press;, pp. 933.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Franganillo, J.,, Sánchez, L.,, Asensio, M., and Marquès, A.. ( 2021;), ‘ Aprendizaje emocional y de valores en la formación universitaria, aplicado al grado de Comunicación Audiovisual de la Universidad de Barcelona. ’, Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 79, pp. 15173, https://www.doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2021-1493. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fryer, L.. ( 2021;), ‘ Introducing a social model of media accessibility. ’, IAMCR 2021 Conference: Rethinking Borders and Boundaries – Beyond the Global/Local Dichotomy in Communication Studies, USIU-Africa, Nairobi, 11–15 July.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gayá, P.. ( 2021;), ‘ Towards even more extended epistemologies: Pluriversality and decolonisation of knowledges in participatory enquiry. ’, in D. Burns,, J. Howard, and S. M. Ospina. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Participatory Research and Inquiry, Thousand Oaks, CA:: Sage Publications;, pp. 16984.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gray, K., and Leonard, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ Not a post-racism and post-misogyny promised land: Video games as instruments of (in)justice. ’, in K. L. Gray, and D. J. Leonard. (eds), Woke Gaming: Digital Challenges to Oppression and Social Justice, Seattle:: University of Washington Press;, pp. 323.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guy, S.,, Ratzki-Leewing, A., and Gwadry-Sridhar, F.. ( 2011;), ‘ Moving beyond the stigma: Systematic review of video games and their potential to combat obesity. ’, International Journal of Hypertension, pp. 113, https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/179124. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ellis, K.. ( 2019), Disability and Digital Television Cultures: Representation, Access, and Reception, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fullerton, T.. ( 2008), Game Design Workshop: A Playcentric Approach to Creating Innovative Games, , 2nd ed., Burlington, MA:: Morgan Kaufmann;.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Harrington, C., and Dillahunt, T.. ( 2021;), ‘ Eliciting tech futures among Black young adults: A case study of remote speculative co-design. ’, CHI ‘21: Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Yokohama, 8–13 May, pp. 115, https://doi.org/10.1145/3411764.3445723. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hodent, C.. ( 2017), The Gamer’s Brain: How Neuroscience and UX Can Impact Video Game Design, Boca Raton, FL:: CRC Florida;.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Huizinga, J.. ( [1944] 1980), Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture, London:: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kafai, Y. B., and Burke, Q.. ( 2016), Connected Gaming: What Making Video Games Can Teach Us about Learning and Literacy, Cambridge, MA:: The MIT Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lau, P.,, Wang, G., and Wang, J.. ( 2020;), ‘ Effectiveness of active video game usage on body composition, physical activity level and motor proficiency in children with intellectual disability. ’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 33:6, pp. 146577, https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12774. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lennox, N.,, Taylor, M.,, Rey-Conde, T.,, Bain, C.,, Purdie, D. M., and Boyle, F.. ( 2005;), ‘ Beating the barriers: Recruitment of people with intellectual disability to participate in research. ’, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49:4, pp. 296305, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00618.x. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lieberoth, A.,, Wellnitz, K., and Aagaard, J.. ( 2015;), ‘ Sex, violence and learning assessing game effects. ’, in P. Lankoski, and S. Björk. (eds), Game Research Methods, Pittsburgh, PA:: ETC Press;, pp. 17592.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lincoln, Y. S.,, Lynham, S. A., and Guba, E. G.. ( 2018;), ‘ Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. ’, in N. K. Denzin, and Y. S. Lincoln. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Thousand Oaks, CA:: Sage Publications;, pp. 21363.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lopez, M.,, Kearney, G.,, Hofstädter, K., and Balla, G.. ( 2020;), ‘ Enhancing audio description: Accessible filmmaking, sound design and the importance of educating filmmakers. ’, Media Practice and Education, 4, pp. 289304, https://doi.org/10.1080/25741136.2020.1832830. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Monroe, K. R., and Martinez-Martí, M. L.. ( 2008;), ‘ Empathy, prejudice, and fostering tolerance. ’, Political Science & Politics, 41:4, pp. 85763, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049096508081122. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mullor, D.,, Sayans-Jiménez, P.,, Cangas, A., and Navarro, N.. ( 2019;), ‘ Effect of a serious game (stigma-stop) on reducing stigma among psychology students: A controlled study. ’, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22:3, pp. 20511, https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0172. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Östlund, U.,, Kidd, L.,, Wengström, Y., and Rowa-Deward, N.. ( 2011;), ‘ Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review. ’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48:3. pp. 36983.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Parker, W., and Becker-Benton, A.. ( 2016;), ‘ Experiences in conducting participatory communication research for HIV prevention globally: Translating critical dialog into action through action media. ’, Frontiers in Public Health, 4, pp. 119, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00128. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ribbens, W., and Poels, Y.. ( 2009;), ‘ Researching player experiences through the use of different qualitative methods. ’, in A. Waern,, P. Lankoski, and H. Verhagen. (eds), DiGRA '09: Proceedings of the 2009 DiGRA International Conference: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory, London, UK, 1–4 September, http://www.digra.org/digital-library/forums/5-breaking-new-ground/. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ryan, R.,, Rigby, C., and Przybylski, A.. ( 2006;), ‘ The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. ’, Motivation and Emotion, 30, pp. 34460, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Salen, K., and Zimmerman, E.. ( 2003), Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, Cambridge, MA:: The MIT Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Schrøder, K.,, Drotner, K.,, Kline, S., and Murray, C.. ( 2003), Researching Audiences, London:: Hodder Arnold;.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sheehan, R., and Hassiotis, A.. ( 2017;), ‘ Digital mental health and intellectual disabilities: State of the evidence and future directions. ’, Evidence-Based Mental Health, 20:4, pp. 10711, https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102759.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Shogren, K.,, Luckasson, R., and Shalock, R.. ( 2014;), ‘ The definition of “context” and its application in the field of intellectual disability. ’, Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11:2, pp. 10916, https://doi.org/10.1111/jppi.12077. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Sousa, C.. ( 2020;), ‘ Empowerment and ownership in intellectual disability gaming. ’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 5:1, pp. 1423, http://dx.doi.org/10.24140/ijfma.v5.n1.02. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sousa, C.,, Neves, J. C., and Damásio, M. J.. ( 2021;), ‘ Research in serious games for people with intellectual disability: A meta-analysis study. ’, ICDVRAT: 13th International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality & Associated Technologies, Universidade Lusófona, Serpa, 8–10 September.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stančin, K.,, Hoić-Božić, N., and Mihić, S.. ( 2020;), ‘ Using digital game-based learning for students with intellectual disabilities: A systematic literature review. ’, Informatics in Education, 19:2, pp. 32341, http://dx.doi.org/10.15388/infedu.2020.15. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Stevens, R.,, Satwicz, T., and McCarthy, L.. ( 2008;), ‘ In-game, in-room, in-world: Reconnecting video game play to the rest of kids’ lives. ’, in K. Salen. (ed.), The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning, Cambridge, MA:: The MIT Press;, pp. 4166.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Terras, M.,, Boyle, E.,, Ramsay, J., and Jarrett, D.. ( 2018;), ‘ The opportunities and challenges of serious games for people with an intellectual disability. ’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 49:4, pp. 690700, https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12638. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. The United Nations ( 2006), Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol, New York:: The United Nations;, https://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/convention/convoptprot-e.pdf. Accessed 14 July 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tsikinas, S., and Xinogalos, S.. ( 2018;), ‘ Studying the effects of computer serious games on people with intellectual disabilities or autism spectrum disorder: A systematic literature review. ’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, pp. 113, https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12311. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Vicente, E.,, Mumbardó-Adam, C.,, Guillén, V.,, Coma-Roselló, T.,, Bravo-Álvarez, María-Ángeles, and Sánchez, S.. ( 2020;), ‘ Self-determination in people with intellectual disability: The mediating role of opportunities. ’, International Journal Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, pp. 114, https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph17176201. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wästerfors, D., and Hansson, K.. ( 2017;), ‘ Taking ownership of gaming and disability. ’, Journal of Youth Studies, 20:9, pp. 114360, https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2017.1313969. Accessed 14 September 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. World Health Organization ( 2001), International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Geneva:: World Health Organization;.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sousa, Carla,, Neves, José Carlos, and Damásio, Manuel José. ( 2022;), ‘ Intellectual disability through gaming: Operationalizing accessibility, participation and inclusion. ’, Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 14:2, pp. 14159, https://doi.org/10.1386/jgvw_00055_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/jgvw_00055_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/jgvw_00055_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Article
Keyword(s): accessibility; games; gaming; inclusion; intellectual disability; participation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error