Skip to content
1981
Volume 17, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1740-8296
  • E-ISSN: 2040-0918

Abstract

Parting from the awareness that not all consumers of US media are located within the geographical and linguistic context of the United States, this article contributes to media sociology with an approximation to the fandom of transnationally popular texts. Empirical findings presented here draw from a broader qualitative study on the reception of the series (GoT) by 21 viewers from Argentina, Spain and Germany. Here I build on participants’ responses to both the original novels by George R.R. Martin and the series adaptation by HBO as distinctive media texts to explore notions of authorship, adaptation and cultural legitimacy. Given the polysemic, intertextual quality of contemporary’s memetic culture, I also discuss a case of digital re-appropriation of GoT’s characters within sociopolitical discourses in Argentina.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Award EU IJC-2020-042743-I/MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033)
This article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The CC BY licence permits commercial and noncommercial reuse. To view a copy of the licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/macp_00050_1
2021-09-01
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/mcp/17/3/mcp.17.3.217.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1386/macp_00050_1&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agar, M.. ( 2006;), ‘ An ethnography by any other name …. ’, Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 7:4, https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-7.4.177. Accessed 20 January 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alhayek, K.. ( 2017;), ‘ Emotional realism, affective labor, and politics in the Arab fandom of Game of Thrones. ’, International Journal of Communication, 8, pp. 374063.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barker, M.. ( 2018;), ‘ What’s wrong with lurking? What’s wrong with the concept of “lurking?”. ’, Fan Studies Network 2018 Conference, Cardiff University, Wales, 29–30 June.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baym, N. K.. ( 2000), Tune In, Log On: Soaps, Fandom, and Online Community, Thousand Oaks, CA:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baym, N., and Markham, A.. ( 2009;), ‘ What constitutes quality in qualitative Internet research?. ’, in A. Markham, and N. Baym. (eds), Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method, Thousand Oaks, CA:: Sage;, pp. 17389.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bazeley, P.. ( 2013), Qualitative Data Analysis, London:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bennett, L.. ( 2014;), ‘ Tracing textual poachers: Reflections on the development of fan studies and digital fandom. ’, Journal of Fandom Studies, 2:1, pp. 520.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Blumer, H.. ( 1962;), ‘ Society as symbolic interaction. ’, in A. Rose. (ed.), Human Behavior and Social Processes: An Interactionist Approach, Boston, MA:: Houghton Mifflin;, pp. 17992.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Blumler, J. G.,, McLeod, J. M., and Rosengren, K. E.. ( 1992;), ‘ An introduction to comparative communication research. ’, in J. G. Blumler,, J. M. McLeod, and K. E. Rosengren. (eds), Comparatively Speaking: Communication and Culture Across Space and Time, Newbury Park, CA:: Sage;, pp. 3550.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boellstorff, T.. ( 2008), Coming of Age in Second Life, Princeton, NJ:: Princeton University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bourdaa, M.. ( 2014;), ‘ This is not marketing. This is HBO: Branding HBO with transmedia storytelling. ’, Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network, 7:1, https://doi.org/10.31165/nk.2014.71.328. Accessed 20 January 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bourdaa, M., and Lozano Delmar, J.. ( 2015;), ‘ Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones. ’, Transformative Works and Cultures, 19, https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2015.0608. Accessed 20 January 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Boyum, J. G.. ( 1985), Double Exposure: Fiction into Film, New York:: Universe Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brown, K. L.. ( 2009), Teaching Literacy Theory Using Film Adaptations, Jefferson, LA:: McFarland;.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bruhn, J.. ( 2013;), ‘ Dialogizing adaptation studies: From one-way transport to a dialogic two-way process. ’, in J. Bruhn,, A. Gjelsvik, and E. Frisvold Hanssen. (eds), Adaptation Studies: New Challenges, New Directions, London:: Bloomsbury Academic;, pp. 6988.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bury, R.. ( 2005), Cyberspaces of Their Own: Female Fandoms Online, New York:: Peter Lang;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bury, R.. ( 2018;), ‘ “We’re not there”: Fans, fan studies, and the participatory continuum. ’, in M. A. Click, and S. Scott. (eds), The Routledge Companion to Media Fandom, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 12331.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cascajosa-Virino, C., and Rodríguez-Ortega, V.. ( 2019;), ‘ Daenerys Targaryen will save Spain: Game of Thrones politics, and the public sphere. ’, Television and New Media, 20:5, pp. 42342.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Castellano, M.,, Meimaridis, M., and Alves dos Santos Junior, M.. ( 2017;), ‘ Game of Spoilers: Adapted works and fan consumption disputes in Brazil. ’, Intensities: The Journal of Cult Media, 9, pp. 7486.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Charmaz, K.. ( 2006), Constructing Grounded Theory, Los Angeles, CA:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Click, M. A.. ( 2019), Anti-Fandom: Dislike and Hate in the Digital Age, New York:: New York University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Click, M. A.,, Gray, J.,, Mittell, J., and Scott, S.. ( 2017;), ‘ Futures of fan studies: A conversation. ’, in M. A. Click, and S. Scott. (eds), The Routledge Companion to Media Fandom, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 43750.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Craig, A.. ( 1976;), ‘ Perón and peronism: Personalism personified. ’, International Journal, 31:4, pp. 70317.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dearman, A. J.. ( 2016;), ‘ Redefining masculinity through disability in HBO’s Game of Thrones. ’, unpublished master’s thesis, Cedar City, UT:: Southern Utah University;.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Eco, U.. ( 1979), Lector in Fabula, Milan:: Tascabili Bompiani;.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Elliott, K.. ( 2013;), ‘ Theorizing adaptations/adapting theories. ’, in J. Bruhn,, A. Gjelsvik, and E. Frisvold Hanssen. (eds), Adaptation Studies: New Challenges, New Directions, London:: Bloomsbury Academic;, pp. 1945.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ellis, J.. ( 1982;), ‘ The literary adaptation. ’, Screen, 23:1, pp. 35.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Finchelstein, F.. ( 2014;), ‘ The peronist reformulation of fascism. ’, Contemporanea, 17:4, pp. 60926.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Finchelstein, F.. ( 2017), From Fascism to Populism in History, Oakland, CA:: University of California Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Fiske, J.. ( 1989), Reading the Popular, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fiske, J.. ( 1992;), ‘ The cultural economy of fandom. ’, in L. Lewis. (ed.), The Adoring Audience, London:: Routledge;, pp. 3049.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. García-Rapp, F.. ( 2017;), ‘ My friend Bubz: Building intimacy on YouTube’s beauty community. ’, in R. Andreassen,, M. Petersen,, K. Harrison, and T. Raun. (eds), Mediated Intimacies. Connectivities, Relationalities and Proximities, London:: Routledge;, pp. 28295.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. García-Rapp, F.. ( 2019;), ‘ Trivial and normative? Online fieldwork within YouTube’s beauty community. ’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 48:5, pp. 61944.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. García-Rapp, F.. ( 2021;), ‘ The fourth wall and “The Wall”: GoT’s reception in Argentina, Spain, and Germany. ’, Television and New Media, article first, 9 April, https://doi.org/10.1177%2F15274764211007198. Accessed 20 January 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Garfinkel, H.. ( 1967), Studies in Ethnomethodology, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:: Prentice-Hall;.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Giddens, A.. ( 1991), Modernity and Self-Identity, Stanford, CA:: Stanford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Goffman, E.. ( 1959), The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, New York:: Anchor Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gray, J.. ( 2005;), ‘ Antifandom and the moral text. ’, American Behavioral Scientist, 48:7, pp. 84058.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Grossberg, L.. ( 1992;), ‘ Is there a fan in the house?: The affective sensibility of fandom. ’, in L. Lewis. (ed.), The Adoring Audience, London:: Routledge;, pp. 5055.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Guilluy, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ The lady knows the recipe: Challenges of carrying out a feminist study of Hollywood romantic comedy. ’, Bulletin of Sociological Methodology, 140:1, pp. 738.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Harriss, C.. ( 2017;), ‘ The producer as fan. ’, Journal of Communication Inquiry, 41:4, pp. 36881.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Hartley, J.. ( 1999), Uses of Television, London:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hassler-Forest, D.. ( 2014;), ‘ Game of Thrones: Quality television and the cultural logic of gentrification. ’, TV/Series, 6, https://doi.org/10.4000/tvseries.323. Accessed 20 January 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hills, M.. ( 2002), Fan Cultures, London:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Houle, C., and Kenny, P.. ( 2018;), ‘ The political and economic consequences of populist rule in Latin America. ’, Government and Opposition, 53:2, pp. 25687.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hutcheon, L.. ( 2006), A Theory of Adaptation, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Jenkins, H.. ( 1992), Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Jenkins, H., and Carpentier, N.. ( 2013;), ‘ Theorizing participatory intensities: A conversation about participation and politics. ’, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19:3, pp. 26586.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Jenkins, H., and Deuze, M.. ( 2008;), ‘ Editorial. ’, Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14:1, pp. 512.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Jenkins, H.,, Ford, S., and Green, J.. ( 2013), Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture, New York:: New York University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Jenson, J.. ( 1992;), ‘ Fandom as pathology: The consequences of characterization. ’, in L. Lewis. (ed.), The Adoring Audience, London:: Routledge;, pp. 929.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kellam, M., and Stein, E.. ( 2017;), ‘ Trump’s war on the news media is serious. Just look at Latin America. ’, The Washington Post, 16 February.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Larsen, K., and Zubernis, L. S.. ( 2012), Fan Culture: Theory/Practice, Newcastle upon Tyne:: Cambridge Scholars Publishing;.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Leitch, T.. ( 2007), Film Adaptation and Its Discontents: From Gone with the Wind to The Passion of the Christ, Baltimore, MD:: Johns Hopkins University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Leitch, T.. ( 2008;), ‘ Adaptation studies at a crossroads. ’, Adaptation, 1:1, pp. 6377.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lev, P.. ( 2009;), ‘ Foreword. ’, in K. L. Brown. (ed.), Teaching Literacy Theory Using Film Adaptations, Jefferson, NC:: McFarland;, pp. 15.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Linden, H., and Linden, S.. ( 2017), Fans and Fan Cultures: Tourism, Consumerism and Social Media, London:: Palgrave Macmillan;.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Livingstone, S. M.. ( 2005;), ‘ Audiences and publics: When cultural engagement matters for the public sphere. ’, in S. Livingstone. (ed.), Changing Media, Changing Europe, , 2nd ed.., Bristol:: Intellect;, pp. 16386.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. McGuire, J. W.. ( 1997), Peronism without Perón: Unions, Parties, and Democracy in Argentina, Stanford, CA:: Stanford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Merriam, S. B.. ( 2009), Qualitative Research, San Francisco, CA:: Jossey-Bass;.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Mittell, J.. ( 2001;), ‘ A cultural approach to television genre theory. ’, Cinema Journal, 40:3, pp. 324.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Mittell, J.. ( 2006;), ‘ Narrative complexity in contemporary American television. ’, The Velvet Light Trap, 58:1, pp. 2940.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Mittell, J.. ( 2012;), ‘ Forensic fandom and the drillable text. ’, Spreadable Media, https://spreadablemedia.org/essays/mittell/index.html#.Yelz1VjP3h8. Accessed 20 January 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Mittell, J.. ( 2015), Complex TV: The Poetics of Contemporary Television Storytelling, New York:: New York University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Mittell, J.. ( 2017), Narrative Theory and Adaptation: Film Theory in Practice, New York:: Bloomsbury Academic;.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Morimoto, L., and Chin, B.. ( 2013;), ‘ Towards a theory of transcultural fandom. ’, Participations, 10:1, pp. 92108.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Moses, D.,, Finchelstein, F., and Picato, P.. ( 2017;), ‘ Juan Perón shows how Trump could destroy our democracy without tearing it down. ’, The Washington Post, 22 March.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Naremore, J.. ( 2000), Film Adaptation, London:: Athlone;.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Perfil ( 2015;), ‘ Elecciones y Game of Thrones. Cristina Kirchner, “madre de los dragones”. ’ (‘Political elections and Game of Thrones, Cristina Kirchner “mother of dragons”’) , Perfil, 31 July, https://www.perfil.com/noticias/politica/elecciones-y-game-of-thrones-cristina-kirchner-madre-de-los-dragones-20150730-0031.phtml. Accessed 31 January 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Poblete, M. E.. ( 2015;), ‘ How to assess populist discourse through three current approaches. ’, Journal of Political Ideologies, 20:2, pp. 20118.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Redmond, S.. ( 2006;), ‘ Intimate fame everywhere. ’, in S. Holmes, and S. Redmond. (eds), Framing Celebrity, London:: Routledge;, pp. 2743.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Richardson, N. P.. ( 2009;), ‘ Export-oriented populism: Commodities and coalitions in Argentina. ’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 44:3, pp. 22855.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Saldaña, J.. ( 2009), The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, Newbury Park, CA:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Sandvoss, C.. ( 2005), Fans: The Mirror of Consumption, Oxford:: Polity;.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Sarikakis, K.,, Krug, C., and Rodriguez-Amat, J. R.. ( 2017;), ‘ Defining authorship in user-generated content: Copyright struggles in the Game of Thrones. ’, New Media and Society, 19:4, pp. 54259.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Slethaug, G.. ( 2014), Adaptation Theory and Criticism: Postmodern Literature and Cinema in the USA, New York:: Bloomsbury;.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Spano, C.. ( 2016;), ‘ Audience engagement with multi-level fictional universes: The case of Game of Thrones and its Italian fans. ’, Participations Journal of Audience and Reception Studies, 13:1, pp. 62555.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Stam, R.. ( 2000), Film Theory: An Introduction, Malden, MA:: Blackwell;.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Stein, E., and Kellam, M.. ( 2014;), ‘ Programming presidential agendas: Partisan and media environments that lead presidents to fight crime and corruption. ’, Political Communication, 31:1, pp. 2552.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Steiner, T.. ( 2015;), ‘ Steering the author discourse: The construction of authorship in Quality TV, and the case of Game of Thrones. ’, Series: International Journal of TV Serial Narratives, 1:2, pp. 18192.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Strangelove, M.. ( 2010), Watching YouTube: Extraordinary Videos by Ordinary People, Toronto:: University of Toronto Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Thompson, J.. (ed.) ( 1995), The Media and Modernity, Cambridge:: Polity Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Tolson, A.. ( 2010;), ‘ A new authenticity? Communicative practices on YouTube. ’, Critical Discourse Studies, 7:4, pp. 27789.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. van de Goor, S. C.. ( 2015;), ‘ “You must be new here”: Reinforcing the good fan. ’, Participations Journal of Audience and Reception Studies, 12:2, pp. 27595.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Voigts, E., and Nicklas, P.. ( 2013;), ‘ Introduction: Adaptation, transmedia storytelling and participatory culture. ’, Adaptation, 6:2, pp. 13942.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Waisbord, S., and Amado, A.. ( 2017;), ‘ Populist communication by digital means: Presidential Twitter in Latin America. ’, Information, Communication and Society, 20:9, pp. 133046.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Whelehan, I.. ( 2009;), ‘ Adaptations: The contemporary dilemmas. ’, in D. Cartmell, and I. Whelehan. (eds), Adaptations: From Text to Screen, Screen to Text, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 320.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Wolcott, H. F.. ( 2010), Ethnography Lessons: A Prime, Walnut Creek, CA:: Left Coast Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Zubernis, L., and Larsen, K.. ( 2012), Fandom at the Crossroads: Celebration, Shame and Fan/Producer Relationships, Cambridge:: Cambridge Scholars;.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. García-Rapp, Florencia. ( 2021;), ‘ From the books to the screens, to the memes and beyond: Fans’ notions of Game of Thrones as an adaptation. ’, International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 17:3, pp. 21737, https://doi.org/10.1386/macp_00050_1
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1386/macp_00050_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/macp_00050_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error