Skip to content
1981
Volume 8, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 2055-5695
  • E-ISSN: 2055-5709

Abstract

The 2000s brought the proliferation of drag culture in the United States with , drag brunches and drag cabaret performances. In addition to the televisual, specifically reality television, drag queens also have gained visibility on a plethora of social networking sites like TikTok. Moreover, TikTok has gained rapid popularity with young adults since its international inception in 2016. Given that a large majority of TikTok users are in a pivotal stage of identity development, it is crucial to explore and analyse how marginalized groups, such as drag queens, present themselves and who has visibility on the platform. By applying visual thematic analysis and quantitative content analysis to #dragqueen and #drag TikTok videos, I found that TikTok as a platform makes White femme drag the most visible form of drag, and hegemonic performances of femininity (which are racialized and associated with Whiteness) are more likely to gain higher levels of engagement.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/qsmpc_00095_1
2023-07-31
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baker, Roger, and Burton, Peter. ( 1994), Drag: A History of Female Impersonation in the Performance Arts, New York:: New York University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bandura, Albert. ( 2002;), ‘ Environmental sustainability by sociocognitive deceleration of population growth. ’, in P. Schmuck, and W. P. Schultz. (eds), Psychology of Sustainable Development, Boston, MA:: Springer;, pp. 20923, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0995-0_11.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bean, Annemarie. ( 2001;), ‘ Female impersonation in nineteenth-century American Blackface minstrelsy. ’, Ph.D. dissertation, New York:: New York University.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. The Body Project ( 2021;), ‘ Body and beauty standards. ’, 26 March, https://www.bradley.edu/sites/bodyproject/standards/. Accessed 23 April 2020..
  5. Boffone, Trevor. ( 2022), TikTok Cultures in the United States, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boyd, Nan Alamilla. ( 2003), Wide-Open Town: A History of Queer San Francisco to 1965, Berkeley, CA:: University of California Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Braun, Virginia, and Clarke, Victoria. ( 2006;), ‘ Using thematic analysis in psychology. ’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, pp. 77101, http://doi.org10.1191/1478088706qp063oa.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brock, Andre. ( 2020;), Zoom interview with the author. , 17 April.
  9. Butler, Judith. ( 1988;), ‘ Performative acts and gender constitution: An essay in phenomenology and feminist theory. ’, Theatre Journal, 40:4, p. 519, https://doi.org/10.2307/3207893.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Butler, Judith. ( [1990] 1999), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Butler, Judith. ( [1993] 2011), Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chan, Sewell. ( 2018;), ‘ Marsha P. Johnson, a transgender pioneer and activist. ’, New York Times, 8 March, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/obituaries/overlooked-marsha-p-johnson.html. Accessed 9 August 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chapple, Craig. ( 2020;), ‘ TikTok crosses 2 billion downloads after best quarter for any app ever. ’, Sensor Tower , April, https://sensortower.com/blog/tiktok-downloads-2-billion. Accessed 13 September 2020..
  14. Conquergood, Dwight. ( 1995;), ‘ Of caravans and carnivals: Performance studies in motion. ’, TDR, 39:4, pp. 13741, https://doi.org/10.2307/1146488.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ducros, Valentin. ( 2017;), ‘ Philosophy & society: Drag queens and gender performance. ’, Medium, 9 December, https://medium.com/@Valentin.Ducros/case-study-drag-queens-and-gender-performance-87eb52f09a2c. Accessed 21 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Feldman, Brian. ( 2019;), ‘ Unraveling the mystery of the TikTok “For You” page. ’, Intelligencer, 12 November, https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/11/how-to-get-on-the-tiktok-for-you-page.html. Accessed 15 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Geyser, Werner. ( 2020;), ‘ 50 TikTok stats that will blow your mind. ’, Influencer Marketing Hub, 1 August, https://influencermarketinghub.com/tiktok-statistics/. Accessed 24 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gramsci, Antonio. ( 1971), Selections from the Prison Notebooks, New York:: International Publishers;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hobson, Kathryn. ( 2013;), ‘ Performative tensions in female drag performances. ’, Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research, 12, Article 4, https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/kaleidoscope/vol12/iss1/4. Accessed 10 May 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  20. hooks, bell. ( 1992), Black Looks: Race and Representation, Boston, MA:: South End Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jennings, Rebecca. ( 2019;), ‘ The not-so-secret life of a TikTok-famous teen. ’, Vox, 2 October, https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2019/10/2/20891915/tiktok-famous-teenagers-haley-sharpe-yodeling-karen?fbclid=IwAR0WbQOjf46DzyI8fOXBBaerBZNKNHw8WuFdDnu-dvxyhR9PA7maQimk8z0. Accessed 10 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Joseph, Channing Gerard. ( 2020;), ‘ The first drag queen was a former slave. ’, The Nation, 31 January, https://www.thenation.com/article/society/drag-queen-slave-ball/. Accessed 25 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kundu, Kishalaya. ( 2018;), ‘ Musical.ly app to be shut down, users will be migrated to TikTok. ’, Beebom, 2 August, https://beebom.com/musical-ly-app-to-be-shut-down-users-will-be-migrated-to-tiktok/. Accessed 26 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lindlof, Thomas R.. ( 1995), Qualitative Communication Research Methods, Thousand Oaks, CA:: Sage Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lorber, Judith. ( 1995), Paradoxes of Gender, New Haven, CT:: Yale University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. O’Brien, Jennifer. ( 2018;), ‘ The psychology of drag: Understanding the science behind the art of pushing gender boundaries. ’, Psychology Today, 30 January, https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/all-things-lgbtq/201801/the-psychology-drag. Accessed 19 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Omar, Bahiyah, and Wang, Dequan. ( 2020;), ‘ Watch, share or create: The influence of personality traits and user motivation on TikTok mobile video usage. ’, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 14:4, p. 121. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v14i04.12429.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pew Research Center ( n.d;.), ‘ Social media fact sheet. ’, https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/social-media/?menuItem=4abfc543-4bd1-4b1f-bd4a-e7c67728ab76. Accessed 28 July 2022..
  29. Pilgrim, David. ( 2000;), ‘ The coon caricature. ’, Jim Crow Museum;, October, https://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/coon/. Accessed 13 April 2020..
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rauchberg, Jessica Sage. ( 2022;), ‘ #Shadowbanned queer, trans, and disabled creator responses to algorithmic oppression on TikTok. ’, in P. Paromita. (ed.), LGBTQ Digital Cultures, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 1294.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rubin, Rebecca,, Rubin, Alan,, Graham, Elizabeth, and Seibold, David. ( 2010), Communication Research Measures II: A Sourcebook, Abingdon:: Taylor & Francis;.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Saldaña, Johnny. ( 2016), The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, Los Angeles, CA:: Sage Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Salih, Sara. ( 2007;), ‘ On Judith Butler and performativity. ’, in K. Lovaas, and M. Jenkins. (eds), Sexualities and Communication in Everyday Life: A Reader, Los Angeles, CA:: Sage Publications;, pp. 5568.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Seidman, Steven. ( 1994;), ‘ Queer pedagogy/queer-ing sociology. ’, Critical Sociology, 20:3, pp. 16976. https://doi.org/10.1177/089692059402000310.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shaw, Alison, and Shirley, Ardener. ( 2005), Changing Sex and Bending Gender, New York:: Berghahn Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Smith, Sam. ( 2020;), ‘ Sam Smith, Demi Lovato – I’m ready. ’, YouTube , 17 April, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glD1M418bC0. Accessed 1 April 2020..
  37. Song, Miri. ( 2020;), ‘ Rethinking minority status and “visibility”. ’, Comparative Migration Studies, 8:1. pp. 117, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-019-0162-2.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Storey, John. ( 2018), Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: An Introduction, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Wang, Yunwen. ( 2020;), ‘ Humor and camera view on mobile short-form video apps influence user experience and technology-adoption intent, an example of TikTok (DouYin). ’, Computers in Human Behavior, 110, p. 106373, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106373.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Worthen, Meredith G. F.. ( 2016), Sexual Deviance and Society: A Sociological Examination, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1386/qsmpc_00095_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/qsmpc_00095_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error