On globes, the Earth and the Cybernetics of Grace | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Global Conversation
  • ISSN: 1477-965X
  • E-ISSN: 1758-9533

Abstract

The article presents an enquiry into conceptions of ‘global’ that began at the American Society for Cybernetics 2020 conference. Following the traces of Margaret Mead’s statement that emphasized that the first photographic images of the Earth from space presented notions of fragility, the article contextualizes the recent critique of the dominant representation of the Earth as a globe that emerged in conjunction with the discourse on the Anthropocene. It analyses the globe as an image and the sentiments that accompanied it since the first photographs of our planet from space were published in 1968. The article outlines how the cultural meaning of the whole Earth representation changed in parallel with the appropriation of the image by the large technological enterprises that emerged from America’s counterculture. It returns to the possibility of a coexistence of ‘views from within’ and ‘views from without’ following a detour with Gregory Bateson via Bali and proposes a Cybernetics of Grace as a practice of resistance against pure exteriority. The article concludes by linking the Cybernetics of Grace with the second-order conversations of Gordon Pask.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/tear_00049_1
2021-06-01
2024-05-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bateson, Gregory. ( [1972] 1987;), ‘ Style, grace, and information in primitive art. ’, in G. Bateson. (ed.), Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology, Northvale, NJ:: Aronson;, pp. 13761.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bateson, Gregory, and Mead, Margaret. ( 1942), Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis, volume 2, New York:: The New York Academy of Sciences;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blue Letter Bible ( 2022;), ‘ G5485 – charis – Strong’s Greek lexicon (kjv). ’, https://www.blueletterbible.org/lexicon/g5485/kjv/tr/0-1/. Accessed 20 November 2021.
  4. Brand, Stewart. (ed.) ( 1968), Whole Earth Catalog, Fall, 1, Menlo Park, CA:: Portola Institute;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brün, Herbert. ( 1972;), ‘ For anticommunication. ’, https://sites.evergreen.edu/arunchandra/wp-content/uploads/sites/395/2018/05/anticom.pdf. Accessed 20 November 2021.
  6. Caffrey, John. ( 1970;), ‘ Our fragile environment. ’, Science, 167:3925, p. 1561.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chaplin, Charlie. ( 1940), The Great Dictator, USA:: United Artists Corporation;.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cooper, David Edward. ( 2012), Convergence with Nature: A Daoist Perspective, Totnes:: Green Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cosgrove, Denis E.. ( 2001), Apollo’s Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination, Baltimore, MD and London:: Johns Hopkins University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cosgrove, Denis E.. ( 2008), Geography and Vision: Seeing, Imagining and Representing the World, International Library of Human Geography, vol. 12, London and New York:: I. B. Tauris;.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Davies, Stephen. ( 2007;), ‘ Balinese aesthetics. ’, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 65:1, pp. 2129.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dewey, John. ( [1934] 2005), Art as Experience, New York:: Perigee Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Evans, Ben. ( 2021;), ‘ Celebrating 60 years of human spaceflight: The flights of Yuri Gagarin and Alan Shepard blazed a trail for human spaceflight that is still unfolding today. ’, Astronomy, 49:11, p. 24.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ferriss, Tim, and Brand, Stewart. ( 2018;), ‘ Transcripts: Stewart Brand (no.281). The Tim Ferris Show. ’, https://tim.blog/2018/02/03/the-tim-ferriss-show-transcripts-stewart-brand/. Accessed 20 November 2021.
  15. Fuller, R. Buckminster. ( 1966;), ‘ Vision 65 Summary Lecture. ’, The American Scholar, 35:2 Spring, pp. 20618.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fuller, R. Buckminster. ( 1969), Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth, New York:: Simon and Schuster;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fuller, R. Buckminster. ( [1970] 1983), Intuition, San Luis Obispo, CA:: Impact Publishers;.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gallese, Vittorio, and Gattara, Alessandro. ( 2015;), ‘ Embodied simulation, aesthetics, and architecture: An experimental aesthetical approach. ’, in S. Robinson, and J. Pallasmaa. (eds), Mind in Architecture: Neuroscience, Embodiment, and the Future of Design, Cambridge, MA:: The MIT Press;, pp. 16179.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Glanville, Ranulph. ( 2006;), ‘ Construction and design. ’, Constructivist Foundations: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1:3, pp. 10310.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hall, David L., and Ames, Roger T.. ( 1987), Thinking Through Confucius, New York:: State University of New York Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hall, David L., and Ames, Roger T.. ( 1998;), ‘ The cosmological setting of Chinese gardens. ’, Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes, 18:3, pp. 17586.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Haraway, Donna J.. ( 2015;), ‘ Anthropocene, capitalocene, plantationocene, chthulucene: Making kin. ’, Environmental Humanities, 6, pp. 15965.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Haraway, Donna J.. ( 2016), Staying with the Trouble. Making Kin in the Chthulucene. Experimental Futures: Technological Lives, Scientific Arts, Anthropological Voices, Durham, NC:: Duke University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Haraway, Donna J.,, Ishikawa, Noboru,, Gilbert, Scott F.,, Olwig, Kenneth,, L. Tsing, Anna, and Bubandt, Nils. ( 2016;), ‘ Anthropologists are talking – about the anthropocene. ’, Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology, 81:3, pp. 53564.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Heidegger, Martin. ( 2003;), ‘ Poetically, man dwells. ’, in M. Stassen. (ed.), Martin Heidegger: Philosophical and Political Writings, New York and London:: Continuum;, pp. 26578.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hoyle, Fred. ( [1950] 1955), The Nature of the Universe, New York:: Mentor Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hustvedt, Siri. ( 2005), Mysteries of the Rectangle. Essays on Painting, New York:: Princeton Architectural Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Huxley, Aldous. ( [1944] 1945), The Perennial Philosophy, , 2nd ed.., New York and London:: Harper & Brothers Publishers;.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kant, Immanuel. ( [1790] 1987), Critique of Judgment, Indianapolis, IN:: Hackett Publishing Company;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ingold, Tim. ( 1993;), ‘ Globes and spheres: The topology of environmentalism. ’, in K. Milton. (ed.), Environmentalism: The View from Anthropology, London:: Routledge;, pp. 2940.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Li, Zehou. ( [1989] 2010), The Chinese Aesthetic Tradition, Honolulu, HI:: University of Hawai’i Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mead, Margaret. ( [1940] 1970;), ‘ The arts in Bali. ’, in J. Belo. (ed.), Traditional Balinese Culture, New York:: Columbia University Press;, pp. 33140.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mead, Margaret. ( [1977] 2011;), ‘ Margaret’s Mead’s Earth Day address to the UN, March 21, 1977. ’, in J. McConnell, and J. C. M. Jr.. (eds), Earth Day: Vision for Peace, Justice, and Earth Care: My Life and Thought at Age 96, Eugene, OR:: Wipf and Stock Publishers;, p. 503.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. NASA ( 2020;), NASA’s Lunar Exploration: Program Overview, NASA.gov. , https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/artemis_plan-20200921.pdf.
  35. Ni, Peimin. ( 2017), Understanding the Analects of Confucius: A New Translation of Lunyu with Annotations (SUNY series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture), New York:: State University of New York Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Nicks, Oran W.. ( 1970), This Island Earth, NASA SP–250, Washington, DC:: Scientific and Technical Information Division, Office of Technology Utilization National Aeronautics and Space Administration;, https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Yl2OLoneLuUC. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Pask, Gordon. ( [1968] 1970;), ‘ A comment, a case history, and a plan. ’, in J. Reichardt. (ed.), Cybernetics, Art and Ideas, London:: Studio Vista;, pp. 7699.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pask, Gordon. ( 1975), Conversation, Cognition and Learning: A Cybernetic Theory and Methodology, Amsterdam, Oxford and New York:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Pask, Gordon. ( 1976), Conversation Theory: Application in Education and Epistemology, Amsterdam, Oxford and New York:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Plato (~380 BC), Gorgias. , Gutenberg.org, 1 March 1999, https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1658. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Plato (~385–370 BC), Phaedo. , Gutenberg.org, https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1658. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Potter, Christopher. ( 2018), The Earth Gazers, London:: Head of Zeus;.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Reinert, Al. ( 2011;), ‘ The blue marble shot: Our first complete photograph of Earth. ’, The Atlantic, 12 April, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/04/the-blue-marble-shot-our-first-complete-photograph-of-earth/237167/. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Serres, Michel. ( 2003;), ‘ The science of relations: An interview. ’, Angelaki, 8:2, pp. 22738, https://doi.org/10.1080/0969725032000162675. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Siudesign ( 1965;), ‘ Notes of a lecture by R. Buckminster Fuller Monday, March 1, 1965, Southern Illinois University. ’, Siudesign.org, https://siudesign.org/bucky1965lecture.htm. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sprat, Thomas. ( [1667] 1702), The History of the Royal Society of London: For the Improving of Natural Knowledge, London:: Rob. Scot, Ri. Chiswell, Tho. Chapman and Geo. Sawbridge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Stengers, Isabelle. ( 2000), The Invention of Modern Science, Minneapolis, MN:: University of Minnesota Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sutton, Clive. ( 1994;), ‘ “Nullius in Verba” and “Nihil in Verbis”: Public understanding of the role of language in science. ’, The British Journal for the History of Science, 27:1, pp. 5564.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. TIME Magazine ( 1972;), ‘ The greening of the astronauts. ’, TIME Magazine, 100:24, p. 43.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Turner, Fred. ( 2006), From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism, Chicago, IL:: University of Chicago Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Vernant, Jean-Pierre. ( 1996), Myth and Society in Ancient Greece, New York:: Zone Books;.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Vickers, Adrian. ( 2020;), ‘ Visual methods and the study of Balinese art collections. ’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 51:3, pp. 32142.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Westermann, Claudia. ( 2020a;), ‘ The art of conversation: Design cybernetics and its ethics. ’, Kybernetes, 49:8, pp. 217183.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Westermann, Claudia. ( 2020b;), ‘ Poiesis, ecology and embodied cognition. ’, Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research, 18:1, pp. 1929.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Westermann, Claudia. ( 2020c;), ‘ Thoughts on time, ecology and art / part 1. ’, YouTube, 4 September, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Wcq5WbhmyA. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Westermann, Claudia. ( 2020d;), ‘ Thoughts on time, ecology and art / part 2. ’, YouTube, 4 September, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5JibGTXNks. Accessed 20 November 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Westermann, Claudia. ( 2021;), ‘ On globes, the Earth and the Cybernetics of Grace. ’, Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research, 19:1&2, pp. 2947, https://doi.org/10.1386/tear_00049_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/tear_00049_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/tear_00049_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error