University–industry relationships in developing countries: Opportunities and challenges in Algeria, Indonesia, Malaysia and India | Intellect Skip to content
Volume 16, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1474-2748
  • E-ISSN: 2040-0551



This article is aimed at investigating the various opportunities as well as the challenges faced by National Systems of Higher Education in aligning themselves with the requirement of National and Regional Innovation Systems in developing countries. It achieves this by comparing various practices of university–industry relationship across four different countries, investigating the links of these universities with regional and/or national systems of innovation and their position within the three-stage evolutionary process (statist, laissez-faire and hybrid) of the Triple Helix system. The article argues that a healthy balance of diverse types of higher education institutions (HEIs) across regional and national levels in a country might be necessary for better national innovation performance.


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