Layers of anti-Americanism: Americanization, American unilateralism and anti-Americanism in a European perspective | Intellect Skip to content
Volume 23, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1466-0407
  • E-ISSN: 1758-9118


The American invasion of Iraq in the spring of 2003 brought to the surface of public debate among European elites a robust anti-Americanism. The reaction to US unilateralism has been nourished by a complex of fears. Two in particular. The first fear has to do with the presumed economic and cultural Americanization of Europe. The second fear with the Americanization of the European political process. Both fears seem unjustified to a closer logical and empirical scrutiny. However, the overwhelming global power acquired by the US in the post Cold War era, and the unilateral exercise of that power especially after September 11, 2001, fed the anti-American sentiment contributing to its most militant manifestation. Although anti-Americanism is deeply rooted in European political cultures and experiences, nevertheless its re-emergence has been greatly triggered by American foreign policy strategy.


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