Institutions and organisations enabling reforms in Indian agricultural research and policy | Intellect Skip to content
Volume 2, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1474-2748
  • E-ISSN: 2040-0551


There is a pressing demand for institutional reform in Indian agricultural research and policy. This paper argues that a conceptual and analytical distinction between institutions and organisations is essential to determine the purpose and consistency of reforms. Institutional change involves transformation of the rules/norms that govern agricultural policy, research and extension organisations. This distinction is necessary for agricultural research to engage in institutional learning and identify the critical constraints on the process of agricultural innovation and development. Examples from the history of agricultural research and extension in India reveal a legacy of institutional problems in the national agricultural research and extension organisations. These organisations have been unable to involve stakeholder participation, promote partnerships and generate institutional learning capabilities. Agricultural policy must enable an introspection of the institutions of agricultural research. This is important to enhance the capability of agricultural innovation systems to build effective partnerships, learn from and respond to complex technological and social contexts, and evolve as a dynamic overarching framework for sustainable development.


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