Biotechnology generation, delivery and adoption: the case of Bt biopesticide in Egypt | Intellect Skip to content
Volume 4, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1474-2748
  • E-ISSN: 2040-0551


This article discusses the successful generation, development and delivery of the Egyptian Bt biopesticide known as ‘Agerin’. Two interlinked processes are identified. The first is the transfer of public research knowledge to the private sector, initiated and supported by a new institutional arrangement for patenting and transferring public research. The implications of these developments on biotechnology are examined. The second process is the incorporation of the biopesticide Agerin, the ‘hard’ innovation, into what is regarded as the ‘soft’ innovation process, the integrated pest management system (IPM). Through IPM, and within the public sector, optimum conditions for the application of Agerin were created and the product was delivered to farmers. Extension workers played key roles in selecting and demonstrating Agerin to early adopting farmers. The attributes of Agerin itself (its efficacy, and harmlessness to human health and the environment) added to its appeal. The complex interplay between public and private institutions also contributed to the development, transfer and adoption of the product. The analysis of this case study provides insights into how biotechnology breakthroughs can be delivered in developing countries


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