Fitting in and sticking out: An exploratory study of the Whiteness of the school music curriculum and its effects on Global Majority musicians | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 7, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2397-6721
  • E-ISSN: 2397-673X

Abstract

This exploratory study followed the journeys of eleven Global Majority1 teachers and musicians2 from their early experiences within the UK music education system up to their present professional careers in music. Focus groups with ten students presently engaged in music education offered a current perspective and comparison with adults’ experiences, allowing for reflection on possible trajectories. The research question asked whether a predominantly White, middle-class music curriculum has an effect on the musical behaviours and identity of members of the Global Majority in the United Kingdom. Findings showed that musicians and music teachers had experienced considerable barriers in music education and musical careers, which had an adverse psychological effect, typically recognized later in life.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jpme_00107_1
2023-05-16
2024-05-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adams, R.. ( 2020;), ‘ Fewer than 1% of university professors are Black. ’, The Guardian, 28 February, https://www.theguardian.com/education/2020/feb/27/fewer-than-1-of-ukuniversity-professors-are-black-figures-show. Accessed 5 April 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alexander, C. E., and Arday, J.. (eds) ( 2015;), ‘ Aiming higher: Race, inequality and diversity in the academy. ’, London:: Runnymede Trust;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. American Psychological Association ( 2017), Multicultural Guidelines: An Ecological Approach to Context, Identity, and Intersectionality, Washington DC:: American Psychological Association;, https://www.apa.org/about/policy/multicultural-guidelines.pdf. Accessed 13 April 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bandura, A.. ( 1990;), ‘ Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of personal agency. ’, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 2:2, pp. 12863.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barbor, R. S., and Kitzinger, J.. (eds) ( 1999), Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice, London:: Sage Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bates, V. C.. ( 2019;), ‘ Standing at the intersection of race and class in music education. ’, Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 18:1, pp. 11760, https://doi.org/10.22176/act18.1.117.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bell, D.. ( 2004), Race, Racism, and American Law, Boston, MA:: Aspen Pub;.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ben-Zeev, A.,, Paluy, Y.,, Milless, K. L.,, Goldstein, E. J.,, Wallace, L.,, Márquez-Magaña, L.,, Bibbins-Domingo, K., and Estrada, M.. ( 2017;), ‘ “Speaking truth” protects underrepresented minorities’ intellectual performance and safety in STEM. ’, Education Sciences, 7:2, https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci7020065.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Black Lives in Music (BLiM) Report ( 2021), Music Creators & Music Industry Professionals: Part 1 – Being Black in the UK Music Industry, London:: Black Lives in Music;, https://blim.org.uk/report/. Accessed 13 October 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bond, V. L.. ( 2017;), ‘ Culturally responsive education in music education: A literature review. ’, Contributions to Music Education, 42, pp. 15380.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bradley, D.. ( 2006;), ‘ Music education, multiculturalism and anti-racism: Can we talk. ’, Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 5:2, pp. 230.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bradley, D.. ( 2007;), ‘ The sounds of silence: Talking race in music education. ’, Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 6:4, pp. 13262.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bradley, D.,, Golner, R., and Hanson, S.. ( 2007;), ‘ Unlearning Whiteness, rethinking race issues in graduate music education. ’, Music Education Research, 9:2, pp. 293304, https://doi.org/10.1080/14613800701384516.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Branscombe, N. R.,, Schmitt, M. T., and Harvey, R. D.. ( 1999;), ‘ Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being. ’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77:1, p. 135.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brook, J.,, Upitis, R., and Troop, M.. ( 2016;), ‘ Developing responsive curricula for studio music instruction in Canada. ’, Problems in Music Pedagogy, 15:1, pp. 721.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brown-Jeffy, S., and Cooper, J. E.. ( 2011;), ‘ Toward a conceptual framework of culturally relevant pedagogy: An overview of the conceptual and theoretical literature. ’, Teacher Education Quarterly, 38:1, pp. 6584.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bull, A.. ( 2019), Class, Control, and Classical Music, New York:: Oxford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bull, A.,, Bhachu, D.,, Blier-Carruthers, A.,, Bradley, A., and James, S.. ( 2022), Slow Train Coming? Equality, Diversity and Inclusion in UK Music Higher Education, London:: Equality, Diversity and Inclusion in Music Studies Network;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Byfield, C.. ( 2008;), ‘ The impact of religion on the educational achievement of Black boys: A UK and USA study. ’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29:2, pp. 18999.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cain, M., and Walden, J.. ( 2019;), ‘ Musical diversity in the classroom: Ingenuity and integrity in sound exploration. ’, British Journal of Music Education, 36:1, pp. 519.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Caldera, A.. ( 2018;), ‘ Woke pedagogy: A framework for teaching and learning. ’, Diversity, Social Justice, and the Educational Leader, 2:3, p. 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Campbell, P. S.. ( 2002;), ‘ Music education in a time of cultural transformation. ’, Music Educators Journal, 89:1, pp. 2732.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Carter-Ényì, Q.,, Carter-Ényì, A., and Hylton, K. N.. ( 2019;), ‘ How we got into drum circles, and how to get out: De-essentializing African music: Canadian journal of music. ’, Intersections, 39:1, pp. 7392.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Carver, M.. ( 2017;), ‘ Knowledge transfer: Indigenous African music in the South African music curriculum. ’, African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music, 10:3, pp. 11941.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Casad, B. J., and Bryant, W. J.. ( 2016;), ‘ Addressing stereotype threat is critical to diversity and inclusion in organizational psychology. ’, Frontiers in Psychology, 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00008.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Charles, E.. ( 2019;), ‘ Decolonizing the curriculum. ’, Insights, 32:1, https://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.475.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cho, R.. ( 2015;), ‘ Cultural appropriation and choral music: A conversation that can make both our music and community better. ’, Choral Journal, 55:10, pp. 5963.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Collins, M.. ( 2021;), ‘ Decolonizing the music room. ’, The Canadian Music Educator, 62:4, pp. 67.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Constantine, M. G., and Sue, D. W.. (eds) ( 2006), Addressing Racism: Facilitating Cultural Competence in Mental Health and Educational Settings, Hoboken, NJ:: John Wiley & Sons;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. De Villiers, R.. ( 2021;), ‘ The Force Field Model applied to a music education teacher training framework in a South African context. ’, British Journal of Music Education, 38:3, pp. 21933.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dei, G. S.. ( 2000), Power, Knowledge and Anti-racism Education, Halifax:: Fernwood Publishing;.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Delgado, R.,, Stefancic, J., and Harris, A.. ( 2017), Critical Race Theory: An Introduction, , 3rd ed.., New York:: New York University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Drummond, J.. ( 2010;), ‘ Re-thinking western art music: A perspective shift for music educators. ’, International Journal of Music Education, 28:2, pp. 11726, https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761410362854.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. George, S.,, Duran, N., and Norris, K.. ( 2013;), ‘ A systematic review of barriers and facilitators to minority research participation among African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders. ’, American Journal of Public Health, 104:2, pp. 1631, https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301706.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gillborn, D.. ( 2005;), ‘ Education policy as an act of white supremacy: Whiteness, critical race theory and education reform. ’, Journal of Education Policy, 20:4, pp. 485505, https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930500132346.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Given, L. M.. ( 2008), The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, Los Angeles, CA, London, New Delhi and Singapore:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Glazier, J. A.. ( 2003;), ‘ Moving closer to speaking the unspeakable: White teachers talking about race. ’, Teacher Education Quarterly, 30:1, p. 73, http://www.proquest.com/docview/222854413/abstract/2AE90CC204934D9DPQ/1. Accessed 13 April 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Good-Perkins, E.. ( 2021;), ‘ Culturally sustaining music education and epistemic travel. ’, Philosophy of Music Education Review, 29:1, pp. 4766.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hamilton, D.. ( 2021;), ‘ #BlackMusicMatters: Dismantling anti-Black racism in music education. ’, The Canadian Music Educator, 62:2, pp. 1628.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Haque, Z., and Elliot, S.. ( 2017;), ‘ Visible and invisible barriers: The impact of racism on BME teachers. ’, London:: National Union of Teachers;, https://neu.org.uk/media/2936/view. Accessed 13 April 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hess, J.. ( 2017a;), ‘ Equity and music education: Euphemisms, terminal naivety, and whiteness. ’, Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 16:3, pp. 1547, https://doi.org/10.22176/act16.3.15.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Hess, J.. ( 2017b;), ‘ Critiquing the critical: The casualties and paradoxes of critical pedagogy in music education. ’, Philosophy of Music Education Review, 25:2, pp. 17191.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hess, J.. ( 2018;), ‘ Troubling Whiteness: Music education and the “messiness” of equity work. ’, International Journal of Music Education, 36:2, pp. 12844, https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761417703781.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hess, J.. ( 2019), Music Education for Social Change: Constructing an Activist Music Education, Abingdon:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hess, J.. ( 2021;), ‘ Becoming an anti-racist music educator: Resisting Whiteness in music education. ’, Music Educators Journal, 107:4, pp. 1420, https://10.1177/00274321211004695.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. HM Government Department for Education ( 2020), Ethnicity Facts and Figures: School Teacher Workforce, https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk/workforce-and-business/workforce-diversity/school-teacher-workforce/latest. Accessed 21 March 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hyland, N. E.. ( 2005;), ‘ Being a good teacher of Black students? White teachers and unintentional racism. ’, Curriculum Inquiry, 35:4, pp. 42959, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-873X.2005.00336.x.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ladson-Billings, G.. ( 1998;) ‘ Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education?. ’, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11:1, pp. 724.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Landsman, J.. ( 2009), A White Teacher Talks about Race, Lanham, MD:: R&L Education;.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Landsman, J., and Lewis, C. W.. ( 2006), White Teachers, Diverse Classrooms: A Guide to Building Inclusive Schools, Promoting High Expectations, and Eliminating Racism, Herndon:: Stylus Publishing;.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Marchais, G.,, Bazuzi, P., and Amani Lameke, A.. ( 2020;), ‘ “The data is gold, and we are the gold-diggers”: Whiteness, race and contemporary academic research in eastern DRC. ’, Critical African Studies, 12:3, pp. 37294.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. McPherson, G. E.. ( 2009;), ‘ The role of parents in children’s musical development. ’, Psychology of Music, 37:1, pp. 91110, https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735607086049.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Morrison, T.. ( 1994;), ‘ Playing in the dark: Whiteness and the literary imagination. ’, Modern Philology, 92:2, pp. 26771.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Pitts, S.. ( 2012), Chances and Choices: Exploring the Impact of Music Education, Oxford:: Oxford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Rhodes, D.. ( 2017;), ‘ Schools need 68,000 extra BME teachers to reflect population. ’, BBC News, 13 July, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-40568987. Accessed 22 April 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Robinson, D.. ( 2017;), ‘ A labor of love: A rationale and second grade music curriculum for a more just and equitable world. ’, Topic for Music Education Praxis, 3, pp. 75116.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Sarath, E.. ( 2018), Black Music Matters: Jazz and the Transformation of Music Studies, Lanham, MD:: Rowman & Littlefield;.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Sawchuk, S.. ( 2021;), ‘ What is critical race theory, and why is it under attack?. ’, Ed Week, 18 May, https://www.edweek.org/leadership/what-is-critical-race-theory-and-why-is-it-under-attack/2021/05. Accessed 21 June 2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Scharff, C.. ( 2017), Gender, Subjectivity, and Cultural Work: The Classical Music Profession, Abingdon:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Smith, J. A.. ( 2015), Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington, DC:: Sage Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Smith, J. A.,, Flowers, P., and Larking, M.. ( 2009), Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research, London:: Sage Publications;.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Smith, J. A., and Osborn, M.. ( 2003;), ‘ Interpretative phenomenological analysis. ’, in J. A. Smith. (ed.), Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, Los Angeles, CA, London, New Delhi and Singapore:: Sage Publications;, pp. 5180.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Tereshchenko, A.,, Mills, M., and Bradbury, A.. ( 2020), Making Progress? Employment and Retention of BAME Teachers in England, London:: UCL Institute of Education;.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. The Strad ( 2021;), ‘ Black America: A race for change. ’, 19 October, https://www.thestrad.com/playing-and-teaching/black-america-a-race-for-change/13766.article. Accessed 19 November 2022.
  65. Villegas, A. M., and Irvine, J. J.. ( 2010;), ‘ Diversifying the teaching force: An examination of major arguments. ’, The Urban Review, 42:3, pp. 17592.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Zamudio, M.,, Russell, C.,, Rios, F., and Bridgeman, J. L.. ( 2011), Critical Race Theory Matters: Education and Ideology, Philadelphia, PA:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Zippia ( 2022;), ‘ Music teacher demographics and statistics in the US. ’, Zippia: The Career Expert, 8 September, https://www.zippia.com/music-teacher-jobs/demographics/. Accessed 18 November 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hendry, Natasha. ( 2023;), ‘ Fitting in and sticking out: An exploratory study of the Whiteness of the school music curriculum and its effects on Global Majority musicians. ’, Journal of Popular Music Education, 7:1, pp. 2545, https://doi.org/10.1386/jpme_00107_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/jpme_00107_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/jpme_00107_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error