Adoption and adaptation in Iñupiat fashion: Past and present | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Arctic Fashion
  • ISSN: 2040-4417
  • E-ISSN: 2040-4425

Abstract

This article presents and discusses the development of Iñupiat (North Alaskan Inuit) fashion of (‘inner garment’) and (‘outerwear’) over time, with a focus on adoption and adaptation, linked to the concept of cultural authentication. It is based on the author’s fieldwork in the winter of 1997 and the summer of 1998, which included participant observations and interviews with seamstresses from the Iñupiat villages of Kaktovik and Utqiaġvik at the North Slope of Alaska, literature reviews, observations from museums and archival photos. The second part of this article involves a case study that focuses on a young Iñupiat trans woman and her mother in 2022. Together they designed a new fabric (instead of leather) for an . The case show how she adopts the contemporary Iñupiat garment and adapts it to her own style.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/csfb_00066_1
2023-11-17
2024-05-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Arthur, L. B. (1997), ‘Cultural authentication refined: The case of the Hawaiian holokuū’, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 15:3, pp. 12939, https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302x9701500301.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Burch, E. S., Jr. (1998), The Inupiaq Eskimo Nations of Northwest Alaska, Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. ‘calico, n.’ (2023), Merriam-Webster Dictionary, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/calico. Accessed 28 July 2023.
  4. Chance, N. A. (1990), The Iñupiat of Arctic Alaska: An Ethnography of Development, Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Corbin, J. M. and Strauss, A. L. (2008), Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 3rd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Eicher, J. B. (2004), ‘A ping-pong example of cultural authentication and Kalabari cut-thread cloth’, Textile Society of America 9th Biennial Symposium, https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/tsaconf/439. Accessed 26 July 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Eicher, J. B. (2022), ‘Preface’, in J. B. Eicher (ed.), Global Trade and Cultural Authentication: The Kalabari of the Niger Delta, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. ixxv.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Eicher, J. B. and Erekosima, T. V. (1980), ‘Distinguishing non-western from western dress: The concept of cultural authentication’, Proceedings of the Association of College Professors of Textiles and Clothing, Washington, DC: University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy, https://hdl.handle.net/11299/162461. Accessed 28 July 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Eicher, J. B. and Erekosima, T. V. (1995), ‘Why do they call it Kalabari? Cultural authentication and the demarcation of ethnic identity’, in J. B. Eicher (ed.), Dress and Ethnicity: Change Across Space and Time, Oxford: Berg, pp. 13964, https://doi.org/10.2752/9781847881342/DRESSETHN0012.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Erekosima, T. V. and Eicher, J. B. (2022), ‘Kalabari cut-thread and pulled-thread cloth’, in J. B. Eicher (ed.), Global Trade and Cultural Authentication: The Kalabari of the Niger Delta, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 2028.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Eriksen, T. (2022), ‘Skeive bunader, finnes det?’ (‘Queer Norwegian folk costume, do they exist?’), Stavanger Aftenblad, https://www.aftenbladet.no/meninger/debatt/i/8QbxjQ/skeive-bunader-finnes-det. Accessed 13 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gray, S. H. (2014), ‘Searching for Mother Hubbard: Function and fashion in nineteenth-century dress’, Winterthur Portfolio, 48:1, pp. 2974, https://doi.org/10.1086/676031.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hess, B. (1999), Gift of the Whale: The Iñupiaq Bowhead Hunt, a Sacred Tradition, Seattle, WA: Sasquatch Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Issenman, B. K. (1997), Sinews of Survival: The Living Legacy of Inuit Clothing, Vancouver: UBC Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jacobson, M. J. and Wentworth, C. (1982), Kaktovik Subsistence, Fairbanks, AK: U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, Northern Alaska Ecological Services.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jenness, D. (1962), Eskimo Administration, Montreal: The Arctic Institute of North America.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kaplan, L. (n.d.), ‘Inuit or Eskimo: Which name to use?’, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Native Language Center, https://www.uaf.edu/anlc/research-and-resources/resources/archives/inuit_or_eskimo.php. Accessed 12 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Larsen, D. R. (2022), ‘Jouvnas Helmine (26) er med på å designe kjønnsnøytrale samekofter’ (‘Jouvnas Helmine (26) helps design gender-neutral Sámi costume’), NRK, 31 May, https://www.nrk.no/sapmi/jouvnas-helmine-bruun-arnesen-gleder-seg-til-a-sy-kjonnsnoytrale-samekofter-1.15982160. Accessed 28 July 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. MacInnes, T. (1932), Klegenberg of the Arctic, Toronto: Jonathan Cape.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Martin, C. B. (2001), ‘Mediated identity and negotiated tradition: The Inupiaq Atigi 1850–2000’, Ph.D. thesis, Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, http://hdl.handle.net/11122/8623. Accessed 13 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Murdoch, J. ([1892] 1988), Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Naiden, A. (2023), ‘Iñupiaq dancers from Alaska and Canada unite at Kivġiq in Utqiaġvik’, Anchorage Daily News, 10 February, https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/rural-alaska/2023/02/09/inupiaq-dancers-from-alaska-and-canada-unite-at-kivgiq-in-Utqiaġvik/. Accessed 13 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nelson, E. W. ([1899] 1983), The Eskimo about Bering Strait, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nielson, J. M. (1977), Kaktovik, Alaska, Barrow, AK: North Slope Borough Commission on History and Culture.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Oliver, S. G. (2016), ‘Barrow voters support name change to “Utqiaġvik”’, The Arctic Sounder, 14 October, https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/rural-alaska/2016/10/13/barrow-voters-support-name-change-to-Utqiaġvik/. Accessed 13 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Oliver, S. G. (2022), ‘Life on hard mode’, The Guardian, 4 March, https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2022/mar/04/iditarod-apayauq-reitan-first-out-trans-woman. Accessed 13 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Patta, G. (2023), ‘Interview for Apayauq | SBIFF 2023’, Latino Review Media Online, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EjvWH3b2w2k. Accessed 13 March 2023.
  28. Ray, D. J. (1977), Eskimo Art: Tradition and Innovation in North Alaska, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Reitan, J. B. (2007), ‘Improvisation in tradition: A study of contemporary vernacular clothing design practiced by Iñupiaq women of Kaktovik, North Alaska’, Ph.D. thesis, Oslo: Oslo School of Architecture and Design, http://hdl.handle.net/11250/298633. Accessed 13 March 2023.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Reitan, J. B. (2017), ‘Contemporary vernacular Inuit clothing as sustainable fashion’, in A. Skjerven and J. B. Reitan (eds), Design for a Sustainable Culture: Perspectives, Practices and Education, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 12940.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Simpson, J. (1875), ‘The western Eskimo’, in Royal Geographical Society (ed.), Arctic Geography and Ethnology, London: John Murray.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Walker, R. A. (2022), ‘Inupiaq musher set to make history in Iditarod: Apayauq Reitan will be the first trans woman to compete in the iconic sled dog race’, 5 March, https://ictnews.org/news/inupiaq-musher-set-to-make-history-in-iditarod. Accessed 13 March 2023.
  33. Yin, R. K. (2014), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Zeerip, Z. (2023), Apayauq (documentary film), https://filmfreeway.com/Apayauq. Accessed 13 March 2023.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/csfb_00066_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/csfb_00066_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error