An imagined space with an imagined time: Analysis of English language textbooks used in state schools in Pakistan | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 17, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1751-1917
  • E-ISSN: 1751-1925

Abstract

English textbooks in Pakistan are an important tool used by the state to construct pupils’ imagination of the time and space of the Indian sub-continent, Islam, Muslims and non-Muslims. This study used the qualitative content analysis method and analysed fifteen English textbooks produced by the state-managed institutions and provincial textbook boards. The analysis revealed Islam as the foundation of the imagination of time and space of Pakistan. This imagination of Pakistan found in textbooks negated the plurality of Pakistani society as the textbook authorities did not give any space to the minority groups (religious, ethnic and cultural) living in Pakistan. This study recommends that the textbook authorities include the often-ignored minority groups in the textbook discourses because the majority of pupils form their world-views and construct their imagination of Pakistan, its people and the world through these textbooks, which contribute to pupils’ construction of their national and cultural identity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/ctl_00092_1
2022-06-01
2024-02-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Anderson, B.. ( 2006), Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London:: Verso;.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Apple, M. W.. ( 1996), Cultural Politics and Education, New York:: Teachers College Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Apple, M. W.. ( 2004), Ideology and Curriculum, London:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Apple, M. W.. ( 2012), Education and Power, London:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Apple, M. W., and Beyer, L. E.. ( 1983;), ‘ Social evaluation of curriculum. ’, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 5:4, pp. 42534.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Apple, M. W., and Christian-Smith, L. K.. ( 2017;), ‘ The politics of the textbook. ’, in M. W. Apple, and L. K. Christian-Smith. (eds), The Politics of the Textbook, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 121.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Asghar, J.. ( 2014;), ‘ Thou shalt not think: Editors’ voice in an English textbook to propagate vested agendas. ’, Education Research International, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/806320. Accessed 3 May 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ashraf, H.. ( 2006;), ‘ A study of English language learning as an element affecting the social capital of the people of Pakistan. ’, Ph.D. thesis, Islamabad:: National University of Modern Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Awan, M. S.. ( 2012;), ‘ Impact of radical Islamisation of education on Pakistani society. ’, Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies, 4:2, pp. 4555.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Baig, S.,, Javed, F.,, Siddiquah, A., and Khanam, A.. ( 2021;), ‘ A content analysis of English textbook of Punjab Textbook Board of grade 8 in Pakistan. ’, SAGE Open, 11:2, pp. 18.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bazeley, P., and Jackson, K.. ( 2013), Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo, New York:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Benwell, M. C.. ( 2016;), ‘ Banal nationalism. ’, in J. Stone,, R. M. Dennis,, P. S. Rizova,, A. D. Smith, and X. Hou. (eds), The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism, Hoboken, NJ:: John Wiley & Sons;, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118663202.wberen346. Accessed 4 May 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Billig, M.. ( 1999), Banal Nationalism, New York:: Sage;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bonvillain, N.. ( 2019), Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages, New York:: Rowman & Littlefield;.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Burki, S. J., and Ziring, L.. ( 2019;), ‘ Pakistan. ’, in Encyclopædia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/place/Pakistan. Accessed 4 May 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Byram, M.. ( 2008), From Foreign Language Education to Education to Intercultural Citizenship: Essays and Reflections, Philadelphia, PA:: Multilingual Matters;.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Byram, M.,, Esarte-Sarries, V.,, Taylor, S., and Allatt, P.. ( 1991;), ‘ Mediating languages and cultures: Towards an intercultural theory of foreign language education. ’, in D. Buttjes, and M. Byram. (eds), Young People’s Perception of Other Culture, Philadelphia, PA:: Multilingual Matters;, pp. 10319.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Canale, G.. ( 2016;), ‘ (Re)searching culture in foreign language textbooks, or the politics of hide and seek. ’, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 29:2, pp. 22543.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Channa, L. A.,, Gilhooly, D.,, Channa, A. R., and Manan, S. A.. ( 2017;), ‘ Teaching English or producing docility? Foucauldian analysis of Pakistani state-mandated English textbooks. ’, Cogent Education, 4:1, pp. 117.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Charmaz, K.,, Thornberg, R., and Keane, E.. ( 2018;), ‘ 18 evolving grounded theory and social justice inquiry. ’, in N. K. Denzin, and Y. S. Lincoln. (eds), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, , 5th ed.., Thousand Oaks, CA:: Sage;, pp. 72076.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Choudhury, G. W.. ( 1955;), ‘ Constitution making dilemmas in Pakistan. ’, Western Political Quarterly, 8:4, pp. 589600.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dellit, J.. ( 2005), Getting Started with Intercultural Language Learning: A Resource for Schools, Melbourne:: Asia Education Foundation;.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Durrani, N.. ( 2007;), ‘ Identity wars in the curriculum: Gender and the military in Pakistani national identity. ’, in F. Leach, and M. Dunne. (eds), Education, Conflict and Reconciliation: International Perspectives, New York:: Peter Lang;, pp. 25368.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Durrani, N., and Dunne, M.. ( 2010;), ‘ Curriculum and national identity: Exploring the links between religion and nation in Pakistan. ’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 42:2, pp. 21540.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Giunchi, E.. ( 2007;), ‘ Rewriting the past: Political imperatives and curricular reform in Pakistan. ’, Internationale Schulbuchforschung, 29:4, pp. 37588.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. GoP ( 1949), The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan: Debates, Karachi:: GoP;.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. GoP ( 2006), National Curriculum for English Language Grades I–XII, Islamabad:: GoP;.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. GoP ( 2009), National Education Policy 2009, Islamabad:: GoP;.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Government of Sindh ( 2014), Policy on Sindh Textbook and Learning Material (Production, Certification, Distribution), Karachi:: Government of Sindh;.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Gulab, F., and Khokhar, A. J.. ( 2018;), ‘ Content analysis of language textbooks (English, Urdu, Sindhi) for inclusivity. ’, Journal of Education & Social Sciences, 6:1, pp. 5571.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Habib, A.. ( 2014;), ‘ An analysis of cultural load in English textbooks taught in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. ’, NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry, 12:2, pp. 7290.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kamal, A.. ( 1995;), ‘ Censorship in Pakistani Urdu textbooks. ’, Annual of Urdu Studies, 10, pp. 12533.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Khokhar, A. J.. ( 2021;), ‘ Islamic values in language textbooks published by the State Textbook Authorities in Pakistan. ’, Journal of Religious Studies, 4:2, pp. 12041.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Khokhar, A. J., and Muhammad, Y.. ( 2020;), ‘ Islamic habitus in English language textbooks produced by boards in Pakistan. ’, Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 10:1, pp. 288310.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Klerides, L. E.. ( 2008;), ‘ The discursive (re)construction of national identity in Cyprus and England with special reference to history textbooks: A comparative study. ’, Ph.D. thesis, London:: University of London.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. KPKTB ( 2019), English Class 8, Peshawar:: KPKTB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kramsch, C.. ( 1995;), ‘ The cultural component of language teaching. ’, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 8:2, pp. 8392.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kramsch, C.,, Cain, A., and Murphy-Lejeune, E.. ( 1996;), ‘ Why should language teachers teach culture?. ’, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 9:1, pp. 99107.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kuckartz, U.. ( 2019;), ‘ Qualitative text analysis: A systematic approach. ’, in G. Kaiser, and N. Presmeg. (eds), Compendium for Early Career Researchers in Mathematics Education, Cham:: Springer;, pp. 18197.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Mahboob, A.. ( 2009;), ‘ English as an Islamic language: A case study of Pakistani English. ’, World Englishes, 28:2, pp. 17589.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Matsuda, A., and Friedrich, P.. ( 2011;), ‘ English as an international language: A curriculum blueprint. ’, World Englishes, 30:3, pp. 33244.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Maxwell, J. A., and Miller, B. A.. ( 2010;), ‘ Chapter 22: Categorizing and connecting strategies in qualitative data analysis. ’, in S. N. Hesse-Biber, and P. Leavy. (eds), Handbook of Emergent Methods, New York:: Guilford Press;, pp. 46177.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Mehdi, M.,, Arafat, Y.,, Abdullah, M.,, Zainab, A., and Abbasi, M. G.. ( 2021;), ‘ A study of ideological aspects in English language textbooks. ’, PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 18:10, pp. 225061.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Meyer, C. J., and Rosenblatt, P. C.. ( 1987;), ‘ Feminist analysis of family textbooks. ’, Journal of Family Issues, 8:2, pp. 24752.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Muhammad, Y.. ( 2019;), ‘ Pakistani national identity, curriculum reform and citizenship education textbooks: Understanding teachers’ perspectives. ’, Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 13:1, pp. 10932.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Muhammad, Y., and Brett, P.. ( 2019;),  ‘ Addressing social justice and cultural identity in Pakistani education: A qualitative content analysis of curriculum policy. ’, in J. Gube, and F. Gao. (eds), Education, Ethnicity and Equity in the Multilingual Asian Context, Singapore:: Springer Nature;, pp. 23553.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Naseem, M. A.. ( 2014;), ‘ Deconstructing militarism in Pakistani textbooks. ’, Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, 6:2, pp. 1024.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ndura, E.. ( 2004;), ‘ ESL and cultural bias: An analysis of elementary through high school textbooks in the Western United States of America. ’, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 17:2, pp. 14353.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Nunan, D., and Choi, J.. (eds) ( 2010), Language and Culture: Reflective Narratives and the Emergence of Identity, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Panjwani, F., and Khimani, Z.. ( 2017;), ‘ Misplaced utopia: Education and extremism: The case of Pakistan. ’, in F. Panjwani,, L. Revell,, R. Gholami, and M. Diboll. (eds), Education and Extremisms: Rethinking Liberal Pedagogies in the Contemporary World, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 7488.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. PCTB ( 2019a), English 4, Lahore:: PCTB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. PCTB ( 2019b), English 5, Lahore:: PCTB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. PCTB ( 2019c), English 6, Lahore:: PCTB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. PCTB ( 2019d), English 7, Lahore:: PCTB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. PCTB ( 2019e), English 8, Lahore:: PCTB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Phillipson, R.. ( 1992), Linguistic Imperialism, Oxford:: Oxford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Phillipson, R.. ( 1996;), ‘ Linguistic imperialism: African perspectives. ’, ELT Journal, 5:2, pp. 16067.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Qasmi, A. U.. ( 2017;), ‘ Textbooks for history and Urdu in Punjab: Transiting from the colonial to the post-colonial period. ’, Südasien-Chronik – South Asia Chronicle, 2016:6, pp. 22955, http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/18452/9174. Accessed 3 May 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Qazi, M. H.. ( 2021;), ‘ Construction of students’ religious national identities in Pakistani state schools and its implications for minorities. ’, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, pp. 118, https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2021.1886053. Accessed 3 May 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Raina, A. K.. ( 2014;), ‘ Minorities and representation in a plural society: The case of the Christians of Pakistan. ’, South Asia: Journal of South Asia Studies, 37:4, pp. 68499.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Shafqat, S.. ( 2017;), ‘ Pluralist society vs. monist state. ’, in I. Ahmad, and A. Rafiq. (eds), Pakistan’s Democratic Transition: Change and Persistence, New York:: Routledge;, pp. 12639.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Skutnabb-Kangas, T.. ( 1988;), ‘ Multilingualism and the education of minority children. ’, in S. Tove, and C. Jim. (eds), Minority Education: From Shame to Struggle, Philadelphia, PA:: Multilingual Matters;, pp. 944.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Smith, J.. ( 2015;), ‘ Muslim–Christian relations: Historical and contemporary realities. ’, in J. Barton. (ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, Oxford:: Oxford University Press;, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.11. Accessed 5 April 2020.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Soomro, S.,, Kazemian, B., and Bughio, F. A.. ( 2015;), ‘ An investigation of the reading text “Pakistan Zindabad” (Long Live Pakistan): Critical discourse analysis perspective. ’, Education and Linguistics Research, 1:2, pp. 4251.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. STB ( 2019a), My English Book 5, Jamshoro:: STB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. STB ( 2019b), My English Book 8, Jamshoro:: STB;.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Tahir, M., and Iqbal, M. B.. ( 2012;), ‘ Representation of cultures in English textbook discourses in Pakistan: A critique. ’, International Journal of Research in Linguistics and Lexicography, 1:3, pp. 5157.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Wandel, R.. ( 2002;), ‘ Teaching India in the EFL-Classroom: A cultural or an intercultural approach?. ’, Language Culture and Curriculum, 15:3, pp. 26472.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Weeks, J.. ( 1990;), ‘ The value of difference. ’, in J. Rutherford. (ed.), Identity: Community, Culture, Difference, London:: Lawrence & Wishart;, pp. 88100.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Wodak, R.,, Cillia, R. de,, Reisigl, M., and Liebhart, K.. ( 2009), Discursive Construction of National Identity, Edinburgh:: Edinburgh University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Woolf, N. H., and Silver, C.. ( 2017), Qualitative Analysis Using NVivo: The Five-Level QDA® Method, New York:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Yaqoob, M. T.. ( 2011;), ‘ Ideology and worldview in textbooks: A study of cultural aspects in ELT in Pakistan. ’, Ph.D. thesis, Multan:: Bahauddin Zakariya University.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Yaqoob, T., and Zubair, S.. ( 2012;), ‘ Culture, class and power: A critique of Pakistan English language textbooks. ’, Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 32:2, pp. 52940.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Yasmeen, S.. ( 1999;), ‘ Islamisation and democratisation in Pakistan: Implications for women and religious minorities. ’, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 22:1, pp. 18395.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Zhang, Y., and Wildemuth, B. M.. ( 2009;), ‘ Qualitative analysis of content. ’, in B. M. Wildemuth. (ed.), Applications of Social Research Methods to Questions in Information and Library Science, Westport, CT:: Libraries Unlimited;, pp. 30819.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Khokhar, Ashar Johnson, and Muhammad, Yaar. ( 2022;), ‘ An imagined space with an imagined time: Analysis of English language textbooks used in state schools in Pakistan. ’, Citizenship Teaching & Learning, 17:2, pp. 22747, https://doi.org/10.1386/ctl_00092_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/ctl_00092_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/ctl_00092_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error