Skip to content
1981
Volume 11, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2042-7913
  • E-ISSN: 2042-7921

Abstract

Despite prohibitive legislation and organizational policies and training, high rates of sexual harassment persist in the hospitality industry, a situation that is concerning to organizations and researchers alike. As management educators, we embedded a sexual harassment lecture within the context of a human resource management degree, with the aim of developing the capacity of the future human resource practitioner workforce to address sexual harassment. The reflective journals of these students, collected over a three-year period, reveal that while participants found the session improved their understanding of sexual harassment myths and remedies, many still questioned their ability to act within the context of wider organizational dynamics. Our analysis leads us to conclude that sexual harassment training sessions are a valuable and necessary starting point for developing intolerance. However, if we are truly committed to eradicating sexual harassment, then a much broader and integrated approach is required that includes redressing the limitations of the current legal systems, broadening the scope of education within the wider community and developing intolerant organizational climates.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/hosp_00027_1
2021-03-01
2024-06-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Agrusa, J., Tanner, J. and Coats, W. (2000), ‘Perceptions of restaurant employees in Asia Pacific on sexual harassment in the hospitality industry’, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 5:2, pp. 2944.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Antecol, H., Barcus, V. E. and Cobb-Clark, D. (2009), ‘Gender-biased behaviour at work: Exploring the relationship between sexual harassment and sex discrimination’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 30:5, pp. 78292.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Antecol, H. and Cobb-Clark, D. (2003), ‘Does sexual harassment training change attitudes? A view from the federal level’, Social Science Quarterly, 84:4, pp. 82642.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barkathunnisha, A. B., Lee, D. and Price, A. (2017), ‘Transcending towards a spirituality-based platform in tourism higher education: A contemplation of the pedagogical implications’, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 21, pp. 17484.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baugh, S. G. (1997), ‘On the persistence of sexual harassment in the workplace’, Journal of Business Ethics, 16:9, pp. 899908.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Benavides Espinoza, C. and Cunningham, G. B. (2010), ‘Observers’ reporting of sexual harassment: The influence of harassment type, organizational culture, and political orientation’, Public Organization Review, 10:4, pp. 32337.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blackstone, A., Uggen, C. and McLaughlin, H. (2009), ‘Legal consciousness and responses to sexual harassment’, Law & Society Review, 4:3, pp. 63168.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (2014), ‘The “critical turn” and its implications for sustainable tourism research’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22:1, pp. 18.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006), ‘Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, pp. 77101.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown, T., McCracken, M. and O’Kane, P. (2011), ‘“Don’t forget to write”: How reflective learning journals can help to facilitate, assess and evaluate training transfer’, Human Resource Development International, 14:4, pp. 46581.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brunner, L. K. and Dever, M. (2014), ‘Work, bodies and boundaries: Talking sexual harassment in the new economy’, Gender, Work and Organization, 21:5, pp. 45971.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Buckner, G., Hindman, H., Huelsman, T. and Bergman, J. (2014), ‘Managing workplace sexual harassment: The role of manager training’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 26:4, pp. 25778.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Butler, J. S. and Schmidtke, J. M. (2010), ‘Theoretical traditions and the modeling of sexual harassment within organizations: The military as data’, Armed Forces & Society, 36:2, pp. 193222.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chan, D. K.-S., Chow, S. Y., Lam, C. B. and Cheung, S. F. (2008), ‘Examining the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: A meta-analytic review’, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32:4, pp. 36276.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Charlesworth, S., McDonald, P. and Cerise, S. (2011), ‘Naming and claiming workplace sexual harassment in Australia’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 46:2, pp. 14161.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Charmaz, K. (2005), ‘Grounded theory in the 21st century: Applications for advancing social justice studies’, in N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 50735.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cheyne, C., O’Brien, M. and Belgrave, M. (2000), Social Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2nd ed., Auckland: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chiodo, D., Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C., Hughes, R. and Jaffe, P. (2009), ‘Impact of sexual harassment victimization by peers on subsequent adolescent victimization and adjustment: A longitudinal study’, Journal of Adolescent Health, 45:3, pp. 24652.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dyer, S. L. and Hurd, F. (2016), ‘“What’s going on?” Developing reflexivity in the management classroom: From surface to deep learning and everything in between’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 15:2, pp. 287303.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ferraz, J. (2018), ‘Sociology’s role in the teaching of organizational behavior in higher education. The case of hospitality management’, Societies, 8:3, pp. 114.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fullagar, S. and Wilson, E. (2012), ‘Critical pedagogies: A reflexive approach to knowledge creation in tourism and hospitality studies’, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 19:1, pp. 16.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gilbert, D., Guerrier, Y. and Guy, J. (1998), ‘Sexual harassment issues in the hospitality industry’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 10:2, pp. 4853.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gill, R. and Scharff, C. (2011), New Femininities: Postfeminism, Neoliberalism, and Subjectivity, Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Good, L. and Cooper, R. (2014), ‘Voicing their complaints? The silence of students working in retail and hospitality and sexual harassment from customers’, Labour & Industry: A Journal of the Social and Economic Relations of Work, 24:4, pp. 30216.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gutek, B. A. and Koss, M. P. (1993), ‘Changed women and changed organizations: Consequences of and coping with sexual harassment’, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 42:1, pp. 2848.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gutek, B. A. and Morasch, B. (1982), ‘Sex-ratios, sex-role spillover, and sexual harassment of women at work’, Journal of Social Issues, 38:4, pp. 5574.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hertzog, J. L., Wright, D. and Beat, D. (2008), ‘There’s a policy for that: A comparison of the organisational culture of workplaces reporting incidents of sexual harassment’, Behaviour and Social Issues, 17:2, pp. 16981.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hubbs, D. and Brand, C. F. (2010), ‘Learning from the inside out: A method for analyzing reflective journals in the college classroom’, The Journal of Experiential Education, 33:1, pp. 5671.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Jiang, K., Hong, Y., McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., Wilson, D. C. and Volpone, S. D. (2015), ‘Retaining employees through anti-sexual harassment practices: Exploring the mediating role of psychological distress and employee engagement’, Human Resource Management, 54:1, pp. 121.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kensbock, S., Bailey, J., Jennings, G. and Patiar, A. (2015), ‘Sexual harassment of women working as room attendants within 5-star hotels’, Gender, Work and Organization, 22:1, pp. 3650.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Klein, R. A. and Poulston, J. (2011), ‘Sex at sea: Sexual crimes aboard cruise ships’, Tourism in Marine Environments, 7:2, pp. 6780.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lin, Y. (2006), ‘The incidence of sexual harassment of students while undergoing practicum training experience in the Taiwanese hospitality industry – individuals reactions and relationships to perpetrators’, Tourism Management, 27:1, pp. 5168.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Liu, X.-Y., Kwan, H. K. and Chiu, R. K. (2014), ‘Customer sexual harassment and frontline employees’ service performance in China’, Human Relations, 67:3, pp. 33356.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lonsway, K. A., Cortina, L. M. and Magley, V. J. (2008), ‘Sexual harassment mythology: Definition, conceptualization, and measurement’, Sex Roles, 58:9, pp. 599615.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Madera, J., Guchait, P. and Dawson, M. (2018), ‘Managers’ reactions to customer vs coworker sexual harassment’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30:2, pp. 121127.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. McDonald, P. (2012), ‘Workplace sexual harassment 30 years on: A review of the literature’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 14:1, pp. 117.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. McLaughlin, H., Uggen, C. and Blackstone, A. (2012), ‘Sexual harassment, workplace authority, and the paradox of power’, American Sociological Review, 77:4, pp. 62547.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mkono, M. (2010), ‘Zimbabwean hospitality students’ experiences of sexual harassment in the hotel industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29:4, pp. 72935.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Molla, T. and Cuthbert, D. (2014), ‘Qualitative inequality: Experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education’, Gender and Education, 26:7, pp. 75975.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. New Zealand Employment Relations Act (2000), Employment Relations Act 2000, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2000/0024/latest/DLM60340.html. Accessed 15 September 2019.
  41. New Zealand Human Rights Act (1993), Human Rights Act 1993, New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1993/0082/latest/DLM304212.html. Accessed 15 September 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. O’Connell, T. S. and Dyment, J. E. (2011), ‘The case of reflective journals: Is the jury still out?’, Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 12:1, pp. 4759.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. O’Leary-Kelly, A. M., Tiedt, P. and Bowes-Sperry, L. (2004), ‘Answering accountability questions in sexual harassment: Insights regarding harassers, targets, and observers’, Human Resource Management Review, 14:1, pp. 85106.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Perry, E. L., Kulik, C. T. and Bustamante, J. (2012), ‘Factors impacting the knowing-doing gap in sexual harassment training’, Human Resource Development International, 15:5, pp. 589608.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Perry, E. L., Kulik, C. T., Bustamante, J. and Golom, F. D. (2010), ‘The impact of reason for training on the relationship between “best practices” and sexual harassment training effectiveness’, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21:2, pp. 187208.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Perry, E. L., Kulik, C. T. and Field, M. P. (2009), ‘Sexual harassment training: Recommendations to address gaps between the practitioner and research literatures’, Human Resource Management, 48:5, pp. 81737.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Pina, A., Gannon, T. A. and Saunders, B. (2009), ‘An overview of the literature on sexual harassment: Perpetrator, theory, and treatment issues’, Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 14:2, pp. 12638.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Popovich, P. M. and Warren, M. A. (2010), ‘The role of power in sexual harassment as a counterproductive behaviour in organizations’, Human Resource Management Review, 20:1, pp. 4553.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Poulston, J. (2008), ‘Sexual behaviour and harassment in hospitality: “Just good fun – nothing serious”’, in S. Richardson, E. Fredline, A. Patiar and M. Ternel (eds), CAUTHE 2008: Tourism and Hospitality Research, Training and Practice: ‘Where the “Bloody Hell” Are We?’, Coast International Hotel, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, 11–14 February, Gold Coast: Griffith University, pp. 107886.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ram, Y., Tribe, J. and Biran, A. (2016), ‘Sexual harassment: Overlooked and under-researched’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28:10, pp. 211031.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Rong, C. and Xiao, X. (2002), ‘Down with sexual harassment’, Chinese Education & Society, 35:1, pp. 4959.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Savigny, H. (2014), ‘Women, know your limits: Cultural sexism in academia’, Gender and Education, 26:7, pp. 794809.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Scott, G. and Martin, B. (2006), ‘Tactics against sexual harassment: The role of backfire’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, 7:4, pp. 11125.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Stake, J. E. (2006), ‘Pedagogy and student change in the women’s and gender studies classroom’, Gender and Education, 18:2, pp. 199212.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Tang, C. S.-K., Yik, M. S., Cheung, F. M., Choi, P.-K. and Au, K. C. (1995), ‘How do Chinese college students define sexual harassment?’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10:4, pp. 50315.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Titus, J. J. (2000), ‘Engaging student resistance to feminism: “How is this stuff going to make us better teachers?”’, Gender and Education, 12:1, pp. 2137.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Vijayasiri, G. (2008), ‘Reporting sexual harassment: The importance of organizational culture and trust’, Gender Issues, 25:1, pp. 4361.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Wagner, A. (2014), ‘Re-imagining the (un)familiar: Feminist pedagogy in rural spaces’, Gender and Education, 26:5, pp. 55367.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Walsh, B. M., Bauerle, T. J. and Magley, V. J. (2013), ‘Individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation’, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 24:2, pp. 21537.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Waudby, B. and Poulston, J. (2017), ‘Sexualisation and harassment in hospitality workplaces: Who is responsible?’, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11:4, pp. 48399.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Waxman, M. (1990), ‘Institutional strategies for dealing with sexual harassment’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 3:1, pp. 7375.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Dyer, Suzette and Hurd, Fiona (2021), ‘“Training the next generation HR practitioners”: Reflecting on HRM student experiences of sexual harassment training’, Hospitality & Society, 11:1, pp. 2746, doi: https://doi.org/10.1386/hosp_00027_1
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1386/hosp_00027_1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1386/hosp_00027_1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error