The Iraqi spectres of Marx | Intellect Skip to content
1981
Volume 14, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 2515-8538
  • E-ISSN: 2515-8546

Abstract

This reading attempts to trace the awareness and mention of Marx in Iraqi writing, focusing on some signposts that also shed light on the intellectual history of Iraq since 1914. It argues its case through an exploration of texts and recollections to present another side of this history as a controversial narrative of multiple positions and contentions. If the spectre of Marx shocked conservatives and was widely manipulated in Cold War politics, its theoretical permeation of an Iraqi discourse of social justice cannot be ignored. Almost every Iraqi narrative, poem, or essay speaks of the need for equitable balance of power, social justice, and social and political emancipation. To have these concerns materialize, there has been a need for some organized forum, a party, society, or a forum. British intelligence service began to trace the specters of Marx early on, and held all, even nationalists, suspect. The trepidations of the Empire were well conveyed in the reports of its agents in Iraq.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1386/jciaw_00028_1
2020-09-01
2024-02-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Agwani, M. S.. ( 1968), Communism in the Arab East, London:: Asia Publishing House;.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Al-ᶜAzzᶜāwī, F.. ( 2008), Al-Qalᶜah al-khāmisah (Cell Block Five) (trans. W. M. Hutchins.), Cairo:: American University in Cairo Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Al-Baṣīr, M. M.. ( 1923), Tārīkh al-qaḍiyyah al-‘Irāqiyyah, Baghdad:: n.p;.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Al-Baṣīr, M. M.. ( 1946), Nahdat al-Irāq al-adabiyyah fī al-qarn al-tāsi ‘  ᶜashar (The Iraqi Literary Renaissance in the Nineteenth Century), Baghdad:: Maṭbaat al-Maārif;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Al-Ḥuṣrī, Ṣāṭi‘. ( 1967), Mudhakkirātī fi al-‘Iraq 1927–1941, vol. 2, Beirut:: Dar al-Ṭalīʻah;, p. 282.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Al-Khalīlī, J.. ( 1962), Al-Qiṣṣah al-ᶜIrāqiyyah, Beirut:: Al-Inṣāf Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Al-Mūsawī, M.. ( 1984;), ‘ Nazᶜat al-ḥadāthah fī al-qiṣṣah al-Irāqiyyah. ’, Baghdad: Al-Mu'assasah al-ᶜArabiyyah, pp. 12240 (Reproduction of Nūrī’s article, 2 April, 1953).
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Al-Musawi, M.. ( 2003), The Postcolonial Arabic Novel, Leiden:: Brill.;
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Al-Musawi, M.. ( 2006), Reading Iraq: Culture and Power in Conflict, London:: Tauris;.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Al-Sayyāb, B. S.. ( 1962;), ‘ Al-Iltizām wallā Iltizām fī al-Adab al-ᶜArabī al-Ḥadīth. ’ (‘ Commitment and non commitment in modern Arabic literature. ’), in S. Jargy. (ed.), Al-Adab al-ᶜArabī al-Muᶜāṣir: Proceedings of the Rome Conference on Contemporary Arabic Literature, Rome, 16–20 October 1961, n.p.:: Aḍwā՚;, pp. 24950.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Al-Sayyāb, B. S.. ( 2007), Kuntu shuyūᶜyyan, Köln:: Al-Kamel-Verlag;.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Al-Sayyid, M. A.. ( 1978;), ‘ Jalāl Khālid. ’, in ᶜA. J. Al-Ṭāhir, and ᶜA. Al-Ilāh Aḥmad. (eds), Al-Majmu’ah al-Kāmilah, Baghdad:: Ministry of Culture and Arts;.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Al-Ṭāhir, A. J.. ( 1969), Maḥmūd Aḥmad al-Sayyid: Rā՚id al-qiṣṣah al-ᶜIrāqiyyah (Mahmud Ahmad al-Sayyid: The Pioneer Iraqi Story Writer), Beirut:: Dār al-Ādāb;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Anon. ( 1935), Kifāḥ al-Shaab, 3, p. 11.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bashear, S.. ( 1980), Communism in the Arab East 1918–1928, London:: Ithaca Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bashkin, O.. ( 2010;), ‘ Lands, hands and socio-cultural boundaries: A reading of Dhu Nun Ayyub’s The Hand, the Land and the Water (1948). ’, Journal Middle Eastern Studies, 46:3, pp. 40115.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Batatu, H.. ( 1978), The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq: A Study of Iraq’s Old Landed and Commercial Classes and of Its Communists, Ba‘thists, and Free Officers, Princeton, NJ:: Princeton University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Colla, E.. ( 2015;), ‘ Badr Shākir al-Sayyāb’ (‘Cold War Poet’). , Middle Eastern Literatures, 18:3, pp. 247–63, 252.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Crossman, R. H.. (ed.) ( 1949), The God That Failed, New York:: Harper Brothers;.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Eakin, P. J.. ( 1985), Fictions in Autobiography: Studies in the Art of Self-Invention, Princeton, NJ:: Princeton University Press.;
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ghareeb, E. A., and Dougherty, B.. ( 2004), Historical Dictionary of Iraq, Lanham, MD:: Scarecrow Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Grimshaw, M.. ( 2011;), ‘ Encountering religion, encounter, and the cultural Cold War, 1953–1967. ’, History of Religion, 1:1, pp. 3158.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hobsbawm, E.. ( 2013), Fractured Times: Culture and Society in the Twentieth Century, Boston, MA:: Little, Brown;.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ibāhīm’, A. Al-Fattäḥ. ( 1932), ᶜAlā Ṭarīq̄ al-Hind (On the Road to India), Baghdad:: Al-Ahālī.;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ismael, T. Y.. ( 2005), The Communist Movement in the Arab World, London:: Routledge;.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. ᶜIzz al-Dīn, Y.. ( 1973), Al-Riwāyah fī al-ᶜIrāq, Cairo:: The Arab Foundation for Culture and Science;.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. ᶜIzz al-Dīn, Y.. ( 1984), cited in M. al-Mūsawī. (ed.), Nazᶜat al-ḥadāthah fī al-qiṣṣah al-ᶜIrāqiyyah, Baghdad:: MADN;.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Jabra, I. J.. ( 2005), The Princesses’ Street (trans. I. J. Boullata.), Fayetteville, NC:: University of Arkansas Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Jāsim, ᶜAzīz al-Sayyid. ( 1972), Al-Munāḍil (‘The Militant’), Beirut:: Dār al-Ṭalīᶜah.;
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kadhim, H. N.. ( 1997;), ‘ False heroes: A study of Abd al-Rahman Majid al-Rubayᶜī’s novel al-Washm (‘The Tattoo’). ’, Arab Studies Quarterly, 19:4, pp. 95110.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kadhim, H. N.. ( 1999;), ‘ Rewriting the waste land: Badr Shākir al-Sayyāb’s Fī al-Maghrib al-Arabī. ’, Journal of Arabic Literature, 30:2, pp. 12870.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kaviraj, S.. ( 2009;), ‘ Marxism in translation: Reflections on Indian radical thought. ’, in R. Bourke, and R. Geuss. (eds), Political Judgment: Essays for John Dunn, Cambridge:: Cambridge University Press;, pp. 172200.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kermode, F.. ( 1968), The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction, New York:: Oxford University Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Khuri-Makdisi, I.. ( 2013), The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860–1914, Berkeley, CA:: University of California Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Nūrī, Bahā՚ al-Dīn. ( 2001), Mudhakkirāt Bahā՚ al-Dīn Nūrī (Memoirs), London:: Dār al-Ḥikmah;.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Olsen, P. V.. ( 2018;), ‘ Cruising Baghdad: Desire between men in the 1930s fiction of Dhu al-Nun Ayyub. ’, Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 14:1, pp. 2544.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Said, E.. ( 1993), Culture and Imperialism, London:: Vintage;, pp. xixxx.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Schlesinger, A.. ( 1960;), ‘ Varieties of communist experience. ’, Encounter, 14:1, pp. 4658.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Somekh, S.. ( 2007), Baghdad Yesterday: The Making of an Arab Jew, Jerusalem:: Ibis Editions;.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Swanson, J. R.. ( 1974;), ‘ The Soviet Union and the Arab world: Revolutionary progress through dependence on local elites. ’, The Western Political Quarterly, 27:4, pp. 63756.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Walther, W.. ( 2000;), ‘ The beginnings of the realistic school of narrative prose in Iraq. ’, Quaderni di Studi Arabi, Literary Innovation in Modern Arabic Literature: Schools and Journals, 18, pp. 17598.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wolfreys, J.. (ed.) ( 1998), The Derrida Reader: Writing Performances, Lincoln, NE:: University of Nebraska Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Al-Musawi, Muhsin, J.. ( 2020;), ‘ The Iraqi spectres of Marx. ’, Journal of Contemporary Iraq & the Arab World, 14:3, pp. 16988, https://doi.org/10.1386/jciaw_00028_1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1386/jciaw_00028_1
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a success
Invalid data
An error occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error